draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-new-25.txt   draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-new-26.txt 
Network Working Group M. Handley Network Working Group M. Handley
Internet-Draft UCL Internet-Draft UCL
Obsoletes: 2327, 3266 (if V. Jacobson Obsoletes: 2327, 3266 (if V. Jacobson
approved) Packet Design approved) Packet Design
Expires: January 17, 2006 C. Perkins Expires: July 28, 2006 C. Perkins
University of Glasgow University of Glasgow
July 16, 2005 January 24, 2006
SDP: Session Description Protocol SDP: Session Description Protocol
draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-new-25.txt draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-new-26.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2006. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 28, 2006.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
Abstract Abstract
This memo defines the Session Description Protocol (SDP). SDP is This memo defines the Session Description Protocol (SDP). SDP is
intended for describing multimedia sessions for the purposes of intended for describing multimedia sessions for the purposes of
session announcement, session invitation, and other forms of session announcement, session invitation, and other forms of
multimedia session initiation. multimedia session initiation.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Examples of SDP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Examples of SDP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1 Multicast Session Announcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Session Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2 Session Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Streaming media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3 Streaming media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3. Email and the World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4 Email and the World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.4. Multicast Session Announcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Requirements and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Requirements and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1 Media and Transport Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Media and Transport Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2 Timing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. Timing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3 Private Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.3. Private Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.4 Obtaining Further Information about a Session . . . . . . 7 4.4. Obtaining Further Information about a Session . . . . . . 7
4.5 Categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.5. Categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.6 Internationalisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.6. Internationalisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. SDP Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. SDP Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1 Protocol Version ("v=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. Protocol Version ("v=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Origin ("o=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Origin ("o=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.3 Session Name ("s=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3. Session Name ("s=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.4 Session Information ("i=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.4. Session Information ("i=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.5 URI ("u=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.5. URI ("u=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.6 Email Address and Phone Number ("e=" and "p=") . . . . . . 13 5.6. Email Address and Phone Number ("e=" and "p=") . . . . . . 13
5.7 Connection Data ("c=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.7. Connection Data ("c=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.8 Bandwidth ("b=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.8. Bandwidth ("b=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.9 Timing ("t=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.9. Timing ("t=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.10 Repeat Times ("r=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.10. Repeat Times ("r=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.11 Time Zones ("z=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.11. Time Zones ("z=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.12 Encryption Keys ("k=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.12. Encryption Keys ("k=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.13 Attributes ("a=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.13. Attributes ("a=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.14 Media Descriptions ("m=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.14. Media Descriptions ("m=") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6. SDP Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6. SDP Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.1 The "application/sdp" media type . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8.1. The "application/sdp" media type . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.2 Registration of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.2. Registration of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.3 Encryption Key Access Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8.3. Encryption Key Access Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9. SDP Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. SDP Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10. Summary of Changes from RFC 2327 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 10. Summary of Changes from RFC 2327 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12.2 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 48 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 49
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
When initiating multimedia teleconferences, voice-over-IP calls, When initiating multimedia teleconferences, voice-over-IP calls,
streaming video, or other sessions, there is a requirement to convey streaming video, or other sessions, there is a requirement to convey
media details, transport addresses, and other session description media details, transport addresses, and other session description
metadata to the participants. metadata to the participants.
SDP provides a standard representation for such information, SDP provides a standard representation for such information,
irrespective of how that information is transported. SDP is purely a irrespective of how that information is transported. SDP is purely a
format for session description - it does not incorporate a transport format for session description - it does not incorporate a transport
protocol, and is intended to use different transport protocols as protocol, and is intended to use different transport protocols as
appropriate, including the Session Announcement Protocol [14], appropriate, including the Session Announcement Protocol [15],
Session Initiation Protocol [15], Real-Time Streaming Protocol [16], Session Initiation Protocol [16], Real-Time Streaming Protocol [17],
electronic mail using the MIME extensions, and the Hypertext electronic mail using the MIME extensions, and the Hypertext
Transport Protocol. Transport Protocol.
SDP is intended to be general purpose so that it can be used in a SDP is intended to be general purpose so that it can be used in a
wide range of network environments and applications. However, it is wide range of network environments and applications. However, it is
not intended to support negotiation of session content or media not intended to support negotiation of session content or media
encodings: this is viewed as outside the scope of session encodings: this is viewed as outside the scope of session
description. description.
This memo updates RFC 2327 [6] in the light of implementation This memo obsoletes RFC 2327 [6] and RFC 3266 [11]. Section 10
experience, and adds a small number of new features. Section 10
outlines the changes introduced in this memo. outlines the changes introduced in this memo.
2. Glossary of Terms 2. Glossary of Terms
The following terms are used in this document, and have specific The following terms are used in this document, and have specific
meaning within the context of this document. meaning within the context of this document.
Conference: A multimedia conference is a set of two or more Conference: A multimedia conference is a set of two or more
communicating users along with the software they are using to communicating users along with the software they are using to
communicate. communicate.
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Session Description: A well defined format for conveying sufficient Session Description: A well defined format for conveying sufficient
information to discover and participate in a multimedia session. information to discover and participate in a multimedia session.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [3]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [3].
3. Examples of SDP Usage 3. Examples of SDP Usage
3.1 Multicast Session Announcement 3.1. Session Initiation
In order to assist the advertisement of multicast multimedia
conferences and other multicast sessions, and to communicate the
relevant session setup information to prospective participants, a
distributed session directory may be used. An instance of such a
session directory periodically sends packets containing a description
of the session to a well known multicast group. These advertisements
are received by other session directories such that potential remote
participants can use the session description to start the tools
required to participate in the session.
One protocol commonly used to implement such a distributed directory
is the Session Announcement Protocol, SAP [14]. SDP provides the
recommended session description format for such session
announcements.
3.2 Session Initiation
The Session Initiation Protocol, SIP [15] is an application layer The Session Initiation Protocol, SIP [16] is an application layer
control protocol for creating, modifying and terminating sessions control protocol for creating, modifying and terminating sessions
such as Internet multimedia conferences, Internet telephone calls and such as Internet multimedia conferences, Internet telephone calls and
multimedia distribution. The SIP messages used to create sessions multimedia distribution. The SIP messages used to create sessions
carry session descriptions which allow participants to agree on a set carry session descriptions which allow participants to agree on a set
of compatible media types. These session descriptions are commonly of compatible media types. These session descriptions are commonly
formatted using SDP. When used with SIP, the offer/answer model [17] formatted using SDP. When used with SIP, the offer/answer model [18]
provides a limited framework for negotiation using SDP. provides a limited framework for negotiation using SDP.
3.3 Streaming media 3.2. Streaming media
The Real Time Streaming Protocol, RTSP [16], is an application-level The Real Time Streaming Protocol, RTSP [17], is an application-level
protocol for control over the delivery of data with real-time protocol for control over the delivery of data with real-time
properties. RTSP provides an extensible framework to enable properties. RTSP provides an extensible framework to enable
controlled, on-demand delivery of real-time data, such as audio and controlled, on-demand delivery of real-time data, such as audio and
video. An RTSP client and server negotiate an appropriate set of video. An RTSP client and server negotiate an appropriate set of
parameters for media delivery, partially using SDP syntax to describe parameters for media delivery, partially using SDP syntax to describe
those parameters. those parameters.
3.4 Email and the World Wide Web 3.3. Email and the World Wide Web
Alternative means of conveying session descriptions include Alternative means of conveying session descriptions include
electronic mail and the World Wide Web. For both email and WWW electronic mail and the World Wide Web. For both email and WWW
distribution, the MIME content type "application/sdp" is used. This distribution, the MIME content type "application/sdp" is used. This
enables the automatic launching of applications for participation in enables the automatic launching of applications for participation in
the session from the WWW client or mail reader in a standard manner. the session from the WWW client or mail reader in a standard manner.
Note that announcements of multicast sessions made only via email or Note that announcements of multicast sessions made only via email or
the World Wide Web (WWW) do not have the property that the receiver the World Wide Web (WWW) do not have the property that the receiver
of a session announcement can necessarily receive the session because of a session announcement can necessarily receive the session because
the multicast sessions may be restricted in scope, and access to the the multicast sessions may be restricted in scope, and access to the
WWW server or reception of email is possible outside this scope. WWW server or reception of email is possible outside this scope.
Session announcements made using SAP do not suffer this mismatch.
3.4. Multicast Session Announcement
In order to assist the advertisement of multicast multimedia
conferences and other multicast sessions, and to communicate the
relevant session setup information to prospective participants, a
distributed session directory may be used. An instance of such a
session directory periodically sends packets containing a description
of the session to a well known multicast group. These advertisements
are received by other session directories such that potential remote
participants can use the session description to start the tools
required to participate in the session.
One protocol used to implement such a distributed directory is the
Session Announcement Protocol, SAP [15]. SDP provides the
recommended session description format for such session
announcements.
4. Requirements and Recommendations 4. Requirements and Recommendations
The purpose of SDP is to convey information about media streams in The purpose of SDP is to convey information about media streams in
multimedia sessions to allow the recipients of a session description multimedia sessions to allow the recipients of a session description
to participate in the session. SDP is primarily intended for use in to participate in the session. SDP is primarily intended for use in
an internetwork, although it is sufficiently general that it can an internetwork, although it is sufficiently general that it can
describe conferences in other network environments. Media streams describe conferences in other network environments. Media streams
can be many-to-many. The times during which the session is active can be many-to-many. Sessions need not be continually active.
need not be continuous.
Thus far, multicast based sessions on the Internet have differed from Thus far, multicast based sessions on the Internet have differed from
many other forms of conferencing in that anyone receiving the traffic many other forms of conferencing in that anyone receiving the traffic
can join the session (unless the session traffic is encrypted). In can join the session (unless the session traffic is encrypted). In
such an environment, SDP serves two primary purposes. It is a means such an environment, SDP serves two primary purposes. It is a means
to communicate the existence of a session, and is a means to convey to communicate the existence of a session, and is a means to convey
sufficient information to enable joining and participating in the sufficient information to enable joining and participating in the
session. In a unicast environment, only the latter purpose is likely session. In a unicast environment, only the latter purpose is likely
to be relevant. to be relevant.
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o Contact information for the person responsible for the session o Contact information for the person responsible for the session
In general, SDP must convey sufficient information to enable In general, SDP must convey sufficient information to enable
applications to join a session (with the possible exception of applications to join a session (with the possible exception of
encryption keys), and to announce the resources to be used to any encryption keys), and to announce the resources to be used to any
non-participants that may need to know (this latter feature is non-participants that may need to know (this latter feature is
primarily useful when SDP is used with a multicast session primarily useful when SDP is used with a multicast session
announcement protocol). announcement protocol).
4.1 Media and Transport Information 4.1. Media and Transport Information
An SDP session description includes the following media information: An SDP session description includes the following media information:
o The type of media (video, audio, etc.) o The type of media (video, audio, etc.)
o The transport protocol (RTP/UDP/IP, H.320, etc.) o The transport protocol (RTP/UDP/IP, H.320, etc.)
o The format of the media (H.261 video, MPEG video, etc.) o The format of the media (H.261 video, MPEG video, etc.)
In addition to media format and transport protocol, SDP conveys In addition to media format and transport protocol, SDP conveys
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port of the multicast stream, whether being sent, received, or both. port of the multicast stream, whether being sent, received, or both.
For unicast IP sessions, the following are conveyed: For unicast IP sessions, the following are conveyed:
o The remote address for media o The remote address for media
o The remote transport port for media o The remote transport port for media
The semantics of this address and port depend on the media and The semantics of this address and port depend on the media and
transport protocol defined. By default, this SHOULD be the remote transport protocol defined. By default, this SHOULD be the remote
address and remote port to which data is sent. Some media types MAY address and remote port to which data is sent. Some media types may
redefine this behaviour, but this is NOT RECOMMENDED. redefine this behaviour, but this is NOT RECOMMENDED since it
complicates implementations (including middleboxes that must parse
the addresses to open NAT or firewall pinholes).
4.2 Timing Information 4.2. Timing Information
Sessions may either be bounded or unbounded in time. Whether or not Sessions may either be bounded or unbounded in time. Whether or not
they are bounded, they may be only active at specific times. SDP can they are bounded, they may be only active at specific times. SDP can
convey: convey:
o An arbitrary list of start and stop times bounding the session o An arbitrary list of start and stop times bounding the session
o For each bound, repeat times such as "every Wednesday at 10am for o For each bound, repeat times such as "every Wednesday at 10am for
one hour" one hour"
This timing information is globally consistent, irrespective of local This timing information is globally consistent, irrespective of local
time zone or daylight saving time. time zone or daylight saving time (see Section 5.9).
4.3 Private Sessions 4.3. Private Sessions
It is possible to create both public sessions and private sessions. It is possible to create both public sessions and private sessions.
SDP itself does not distinguish between these: private sessions are SDP itself does not distinguish between these; private sessions are
typically conveyed by encrypting the session description during typically conveyed by encrypting the session description during
distribution. The details of how encryption is performed are distribution. The details of how encryption is performed are
dependent on the mechanism used to convey SDP: mechanisms are dependent on the mechanism used to convey SDP; mechanisms are
currently defined for SDP transported using SAP [14] and SIP [15], currently defined for SDP transported using SAP [15] and SIP [16],
others may be defined in future. others may be defined in future.
If a session announcement is private it is possible to use that If a session announcement is private it is possible to use that
private announcement to convey encryption keys necessary to decode private announcement to convey encryption keys necessary to decode
each of the media in a conference, including enough information to each of the media in a conference, including enough information to
know which encryption scheme is used for each media. know which encryption scheme is used for each media.
4.4 Obtaining Further Information about a Session 4.4. Obtaining Further Information about a Session
A session description should convey enough information to decide A session description should convey enough information to decide
whether or not to participate in a session. SDP may include whether or not to participate in a session. SDP may include
additional pointers in the form of Universal Resources Identifiers additional pointers in the form of Universal Resources Identifiers
(URIs) for more information about the session. (URIs) for more information about the session.
4.5 Categorisation 4.5. Categorisation
When many session descriptions are being distributed by SAP, or any When many session descriptions are being distributed by SAP, or any
other advertisement mechanism, it may be desirable to filter session other advertisement mechanism, it may be desirable to filter session
announcements that are of interest from those that are not. SDP announcements that are of interest from those that are not. SDP
supports a categorisation mechanism for sessions that is capable of supports a categorisation mechanism for sessions that is capable of
being automated. being automated (the "a=cat:" attribute; see Section 6).
4.6 Internationalisation 4.6. Internationalisation
The SDP specification recommends the use of the ISO 10646 character The SDP specification recommends the use of the ISO 10646 character
sets in the UTF-8 encoding [5] to allow many different languages to sets in the UTF-8 encoding [5] to allow many different languages to
be represented. However, to assist in compact representations, SDP be represented. However, to assist in compact representations, SDP
also allows other character sets such as ISO 8859-1 to be used when also allows other character sets such as ISO 8859-1 to be used when
desired. Internationalisation only applies to free-text fields desired. Internationalisation only applies to free-text fields
(session name and background information), and not to SDP as a whole. (session name and background information), and not to SDP as a whole.
5. SDP Specification 5. SDP Specification
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a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000 a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000
Text fields such as the session name and information are octet Text fields such as the session name and information are octet
strings which may contain any octet with the exceptions of 0x00 strings which may contain any octet with the exceptions of 0x00
(Nul), 0x0a (ASCII newline) and 0x0d (ASCII carriage return). The (Nul), 0x0a (ASCII newline) and 0x0d (ASCII carriage return). The
sequence CRLF (0x0d0a) is used to end a record, although parsers sequence CRLF (0x0d0a) is used to end a record, although parsers
SHOULD be tolerant and also accept records terminated with a single SHOULD be tolerant and also accept records terminated with a single
newline character. If the "a=charset" attribute is not present, newline character. If the "a=charset" attribute is not present,
these octet strings MUST be interpreted as containing ISO-10646 these octet strings MUST be interpreted as containing ISO-10646
characters in UTF-8 encoding (the presence of the "a=charset" characters in UTF-8 encoding (the presence of the "a=charset"
attribute MAY force some fields to be interpreted differently). attribute may force some fields to be interpreted differently).
A session description can contain domain names in the "o=", "u=", A session description can contain domain names in the "o=", "u=",
"e=", "c=" and "a=" lines. Any domain name used in SDP MUST comply "e=", "c=" and "a=" lines. Any domain name used in SDP MUST comply
with [1], [2]. Internationalised domain names (IDNs) MUST be with [1], [2]. Internationalised domain names (IDNs) MUST be
represented using the ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) form defined in represented using the ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) form defined in
[11] and MUST NOT be directly represented in UTF-8 or any other [12] and MUST NOT be directly represented in UTF-8 or any other
encoding (this requirement is for compatibility with RFC 2327 and encoding (this requirement is for compatibility with RFC 2327 and
other SDP-related standards, which predate the development of other SDP-related standards, which predate the development of
internationalized domain names). internationalized domain names).
5.1 Protocol Version ("v=") 5.1. Protocol Version ("v=")
v=0 v=0
The "v=" field gives the version of the Session Description Protocol. The "v=" field gives the version of the Session Description Protocol.
This memo defines version 0. There is no minor version number. This memo defines version 0. There is no minor version number.
5.2 Origin ("o=") 5.2. Origin ("o=")
o=<username> <sess-id> <sess-version> <nettype> <addrtype> o=<username> <sess-id> <sess-version> <nettype> <addrtype>
<unicast-address> <unicast-address>
The "o=" field gives the originator of the session (her username and The "o=" field gives the originator of the session (her username and
the address of the user's host) plus a session identifier and version the address of the user's host) plus a session identifier and version
number: number:
<username> is the user's login on the originating host, or it is "-" <username> is the user's login on the originating host, or it is "-"
if the originating host does not support the concept of user ids. if the originating host does not support the concept of user ids.
The <username> MUST NOT contain spaces. The <username> MUST NOT contain spaces.
<sess-id> is a numeric string such that the tuple of <username>, <sess-id> is a numeric string such that the tuple of <username>,
<sess-id>, <nettype>, <addrtype> and <unicast-address> form a <sess-id>, <nettype>, <addrtype> and <unicast-address> form a
globally unique identifier for the session. The method of globally unique identifier for the session. The method of
<sess-id> allocation is up to the creating tool, but it has been <sess-id> allocation is up to the creating tool, but it has been
suggested that a Network Time Protocol (NTP) format timestamp be suggested that a Network Time Protocol (NTP) format timestamp be
used to ensure uniqueness [13]. used to ensure uniqueness [14].
<sess-version> is a version number for this session description. Its <sess-version> is a version number for this session description. Its
usage is up to the creating tool, so long as <sess-version> is usage is up to the creating tool, so long as <sess-version> is
increased when a modification is made to the session data. Again, increased when a modification is made to the session data. Again,
it is RECOMMENDED that an NTP format timestamp is used. it is RECOMMENDED that an NTP format timestamp is used.
<nettype> is a text string giving the type of network. Initially <nettype> is a text string giving the type of network. Initially
"IN" is defined to have the meaning "Internet", but other values "IN" is defined to have the meaning "Internet", but other values
MAY be registered in future (see Section 8). MAY be registered in future (see Section 8).
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session was created. For an address type of IP4, this is either session was created. For an address type of IP4, this is either
the fully-qualified domain name of the machine, or the dotted- the fully-qualified domain name of the machine, or the dotted-
decimal representation of the IP version 4 address of the machine. decimal representation of the IP version 4 address of the machine.
For an address type of IP6, this is either the fully-qualified For an address type of IP6, this is either the fully-qualified
domain name of the machine, or the compressed textual domain name of the machine, or the compressed textual
representation of the IP version 6 address of the machine. For representation of the IP version 6 address of the machine. For
both IP4 and IP6, the fully-qualified domain name is the form that both IP4 and IP6, the fully-qualified domain name is the form that
SHOULD be given unless this is unavailable, in which case the SHOULD be given unless this is unavailable, in which case the
globally unique address MAY be substituted. A local IP address globally unique address MAY be substituted. A local IP address
MUST NOT be used in any context where the SDP description might MUST NOT be used in any context where the SDP description might
leave the scope in which the address is meaningful. leave the scope in which the address is meaningful (for example, a
local address MUST NOT be included in an application-level
referral that might leave the scope).
In general, the "o=" field serves as a globally unique identifier for In general, the "o=" field serves as a globally unique identifier for
this version of this session description, and the subfields excepting this version of this session description, and the subfields excepting
the version taken together identify the session irrespective of any the version taken together identify the session irrespective of any
modifications. modifications.
For privacy reasons, it is sometimes desirable to obfuscate the For privacy reasons, it is sometimes desirable to obfuscate the
username and IP address of the session originator. If this is a username and IP address of the session originator. If this is a
concern, an arbitrary <username> and private <unicast-address> MAY be concern, an arbitrary <username> and private <unicast-address> MAY be
chosen to populate the "o=" field, provided these are selected in a chosen to populate the "o=" field, provided these are selected in a
manner that does not affect the global uniqueness of the field. manner that does not affect the global uniqueness of the field.
5.3 Session Name ("s=") 5.3. Session Name ("s=")
s=<session name> s=<session name>
The "s=" field is the textual session name. There MUST be one and The "s=" field is the textual session name. There MUST be one and
only one "s=" field per session description. The "s=" field MUST NOT only one "s=" field per session description. The "s=" field MUST NOT
be empty and SHOULD contain ISO 10646 characters (but see also the be empty and SHOULD contain ISO 10646 characters (but see also the
"a=charset" attribute). If a session has no meaningful name, the "a=charset" attribute). If a session has no meaningful name, the
value "s= " SHOULD be used (i.e. a single space as the session name). value "s= " SHOULD be used (i.e. a single space as the session name).
5.4 Session Information ("i=") 5.4. Session Information ("i=")
i=<session description> i=<session description>
The "i=" field provides textual information about the session. There The "i=" field provides textual information about the session. There
MUST be at most one session-level "i=" field per session description, MUST be at most one session-level "i=" field per session description,
and at most one "i=" field per media. If the "a=charset" attribute and at most one "i=" field per media. If the "a=charset" attribute
is present, it specifies the character set used in the "i=" field. is present, it specifies the character set used in the "i=" field.
If the "a=charset" attribute is not present, the "i=" field MUST If the "a=charset" attribute is not present, the "i=" field MUST
contain ISO 10646 characters in UTF-8 encoding. contain ISO 10646 characters in UTF-8 encoding.
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media definitions, "i=" fields are primarily intended for labelling media definitions, "i=" fields are primarily intended for labelling
media streams. As such, they are most likely to be useful when a media streams. As such, they are most likely to be useful when a
single session has more than one distinct media stream of the same single session has more than one distinct media stream of the same
media type. An example would be two different whiteboards, one for media type. An example would be two different whiteboards, one for
slides and one for feedback and questions. slides and one for feedback and questions.
The "i=" field is intended to provide a free-form human readable The "i=" field is intended to provide a free-form human readable
description of the session or the purpose of a media stream. It is description of the session or the purpose of a media stream. It is
not suitable for parsing by automata. not suitable for parsing by automata.
5.5 URI ("u=") 5.5. URI ("u=")
u=<uri> u=<uri>
A URI is a Universal Resource Identifier as used by WWW clients [7], A URI is a Universal Resource Identifier as used by WWW clients [7],
[9]. The URI should be a pointer to additional information about the [9]. The URI should be a pointer to additional information about the
session. This field is OPTIONAL, but if it is present it MUST be session. This field is OPTIONAL, but if it is present it MUST be
specified before the first media field. No more than one URI field specified before the first media field. No more than one URI field
is allowed per session description. is allowed per session description.
5.6 Email Address and Phone Number ("e=" and "p=") 5.6. Email Address and Phone Number ("e=" and "p=")
e=<email-address> e=<email-address>
p=<phone-number> p=<phone-number>
The "e=" and "p=" lines specify contact information for the person The "e=" and "p=" lines specify contact information for the person
responsible for the conference. This is not necessarily the same responsible for the conference. This is not necessarily the same
person that created the conference announcement. person that created the conference announcement.
Inclusion of an email address or phone number is OPTIONAL. Note that Inclusion of an email address or phone number is OPTIONAL. Note that
the previous version of SDP specified that either an email field or a the previous version of SDP specified that either an email field or a
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The alternative RFC 2822 name quoting convention is also allowed for The alternative RFC 2822 name quoting convention is also allowed for
both email addresses and phone numbers. For example: both email addresses and phone numbers. For example:
e=Jane Doe <j.doe@example.com> e=Jane Doe <j.doe@example.com>
The free text string SHOULD be in the ISO-10646 character set with The free text string SHOULD be in the ISO-10646 character set with
UTF-8 encoding, or alternatively in ISO-8859-1 or other encodings if UTF-8 encoding, or alternatively in ISO-8859-1 or other encodings if
the appropriate session-level "a=charset" attribute is set. the appropriate session-level "a=charset" attribute is set.
5.7 Connection Data ("c=") 5.7. Connection Data ("c=")
c=<nettype> <addrtype> <connection-address> c=<nettype> <addrtype> <connection-address>
The "c=" field contains connection data. The "c=" field contains connection data.
A session description MUST contain either at least one "c=" field in A session description MUST contain either at least one "c=" field in
each media description or a single "c=" field at the session level. each media description or a single "c=" field at the session level.
It MAY contain a single session-level "c=" field and additional "c=" It MAY contain a single session-level "c=" field and additional "c="
field(s) per media description, in which case the per-media values field(s) per media description, in which case the per-media values
override the session-level settings for the respective media. override the session-level settings for the respective media.
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(remembering that the TTL field is not present in IPv6 multicast). (remembering that the TTL field is not present in IPv6 multicast).
Multiple addresses or "c=" lines MAY be specified on a per-media Multiple addresses or "c=" lines MAY be specified on a per-media
basis only if they provide multicast addresses for different layers basis only if they provide multicast addresses for different layers
in a hierarchical or layered encoding scheme. They MUST NOT be in a hierarchical or layered encoding scheme. They MUST NOT be
specified for a session-level "c=" field. specified for a session-level "c=" field.
The slash notation for multiple addresses described above MUST NOT be The slash notation for multiple addresses described above MUST NOT be
used for IP unicast addresses. used for IP unicast addresses.
5.8 Bandwidth ("b=") 5.8. Bandwidth ("b=")
b=<bwtype>:<bandwidth> b=<bwtype>:<bandwidth>
This OPTIONAL field denotes the proposed bandwidth to be used by the This OPTIONAL field denotes the proposed bandwidth to be used by the
session or media. The <bwtype> is an alphanumeric modifier giving session or media. The <bwtype> is an alphanumeric modifier giving
the meaning of the <bandwidth> figure. Two values are defined in the meaning of the <bandwidth> figure. Two values are defined in
this specification, but other values MAY be registered in future (see this specification, but other values MAY be registered in future (see
Section 8 and [20], [24]): Section 8 and [22], [26]):
CT If the bandwidth of a session or media in a session is different CT If the bandwidth of a session or media in a session is different
from the bandwidth implicit from the scope, a "b=CT:..." line from the bandwidth implicit from the scope, a "b=CT:..." line
SHOULD be supplied for the session giving the proposed upper limit SHOULD be supplied for the session giving the proposed upper limit
to the bandwidth used (the "conference total" bandwidth). The to the bandwidth used (the "conference total" bandwidth). The
primary purpose of this is to give an approximate idea as to primary purpose of this is to give an approximate idea as to
whether two or more sessions can co-exist simultaneously. When whether two or more sessions can co-exist simultaneously. When
using the CT modifier with RTP, if several RTP sessions are part using the CT modifier with RTP, if several RTP sessions are part
of the conference, the conference total refers to total bandwidth of the conference, the conference total refers to total bandwidth
of all RTP sessions. of all RTP sessions.
AS The bandwidth is interpreted to be application-specific (it will AS The bandwidth is interpreted to be application-specific (it will
be the application's concept of maximum bandwidth). Normally this be the application's concept of maximum bandwidth). Normally this
will coincide with what is set on the application's "maximum will coincide with what is set on the application's "maximum
bandwidth" control if applicable. For RTP based applications, AS bandwidth" control if applicable. For RTP based applications, AS
gives the RTP "session bandwidth" as defined in Section 6.2 of gives the RTP "session bandwidth" as defined in Section 6.2 of
[18]. [20].
Note that CT gives a total bandwidth figure for all the media at all Note that CT gives a total bandwidth figure for all the media at all
sites. AS gives a bandwidth figure for a single media at a single sites. AS gives a bandwidth figure for a single media at a single
site, although there may be many sites sending simultaneously. site, although there may be many sites sending simultaneously.
A prefix "X-" is defined for <bwtype> names. This is intended for A prefix "X-" is defined for <bwtype> names. This is intended for
experimental purposes only. For example: experimental purposes only. For example:
b=X-YZ:128 b=X-YZ:128
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SHOULD be registered with IANA in the standard namespace. SDP SHOULD be registered with IANA in the standard namespace. SDP
parsers MUST ignore bandwidth fields with unknown modifiers. parsers MUST ignore bandwidth fields with unknown modifiers.
Modifiers MUST be alpha-numeric and, although no length limit is Modifiers MUST be alpha-numeric and, although no length limit is
given, they are recommended to be short. given, they are recommended to be short.
The <bandwidth> is interpreted as kilobits per second by default. The <bandwidth> is interpreted as kilobits per second by default.
The definition of a new <bwtype> modifier MAY specify that the The definition of a new <bwtype> modifier MAY specify that the
bandwidth is to be interpreted in some alternative unit (the "CT" and bandwidth is to be interpreted in some alternative unit (the "CT" and
"AS" modifiers defined in this memo use the default units). "AS" modifiers defined in this memo use the default units).
5.9 Timing ("t=") 5.9. Timing ("t=")
t=<start-time> <stop-time> t=<start-time> <stop-time>
The "t=" lines specify the start and stop times for a session. The "t=" lines specify the start and stop times for a session.
Multiple "t=" lines MAY be used if a session is active at multiple Multiple "t=" lines MAY be used if a session is active at multiple
irregularly spaced times; each additional "t=" lines specifies an irregularly spaced times; each additional "t=" lines specifies an
additional period of time for which the session will be active. If additional period of time for which the session will be active. If
the session is active at regular times, an "r=" line (see below) the session is active at regular times, an "r=" line (see below)
should be used in addition to, and following, a "t=" line - in which should be used in addition to, and following, a "t=" line - in which
case the "t=" line specifies the start and stop times of the repeat case the "t=" line specifies the start and stop times of the repeat
sequence. sequence.
The first and second sub-fields give the start and stop times for the The first and second sub-fields give the start and stop times for the
session respectively. These values are the decimal representation of session respectively. These values are the decimal representation of
Network Time Protocol (NTP) time values in seconds since 1900 [13]. Network Time Protocol (NTP) time values in seconds since 1900 [14].
To convert these values to UNIX time, subtract decimal 2208988800. To convert these values to UNIX time, subtract decimal 2208988800.
NTP timestamps are elsewhere represented by 64 bit values which wrap NTP timestamps are elsewhere represented by 64 bit values which wrap
sometime in the year 2036. Since SDP uses an arbitrary length sometime in the year 2036. Since SDP uses an arbitrary length
decimal representation, this should not cause an issue (SDP decimal representation, this should not cause an issue (SDP
timestamps MUST continue counting seconds since 1900, NTP will use timestamps MUST continue counting seconds since 1900, NTP will use
the value modulo the 64 bit limit). the value modulo the 64 bit limit).
If the <stop-time> is set to zero, then the session is not bounded, If the <stop-time> is set to zero, then the session is not bounded,
though it will not become active until after the <start-time>. If though it will not become active until after the <start-time>. If
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The general assumption may be made, when displaying unbounded The general assumption may be made, when displaying unbounded
sessions that have not timed out to the user, that an unbounded sessions that have not timed out to the user, that an unbounded
session will only be active until half an hour from the current time session will only be active until half an hour from the current time
or the session start time, whichever is the later. If behaviour or the session start time, whichever is the later. If behaviour
other than this is required, an end-time SHOULD be given and modified other than this is required, an end-time SHOULD be given and modified
as appropriate when new information becomes available about when the as appropriate when new information becomes available about when the
session should really end. session should really end.
Permanent sessions may be shown to the user as never being active Permanent sessions may be shown to the user as never being active
unless there are associated repeat times which state precisely when unless there are associated repeat times which state precisely when
the session will be active. In general, permanent sessions SHOULD the session will be active.
NOT be created for any session expected to have a duration of less
than 2 months, and should be discouraged for sessions expected to
have a duration of less than 6 months.
5.10 Repeat Times ("r=") 5.10. Repeat Times ("r=")
r=<repeat-interval> <active duration> <offsets from start-time> r=<repeat-interval> <active duration> <offsets from start-time>
"r=" fields specify repeat times for a session. For example, if a "r=" fields specify repeat times for a session. For example, if a
session is active at 10am on Monday and 11am on Tuesday for one hour session is active at 10am on Monday and 11am on Tuesday for one hour
each week for three months, then the <start-time> in the each week for three months, then the <start-time> in the
corresponding "t=" field would be the NTP representation of 10am on corresponding "t=" field would be the NTP representation of 10am on
the first Monday, the <repeat interval> would be 1 week, the <active the first Monday, the <repeat interval> would be 1 week, the <active
duration> would be 1 hour, and the offsets would be zero and 25 duration> would be 1 hour, and the offsets would be zero and 25
hours. The corresponding "t=" field stop time would be the NTP hours. The corresponding "t=" field stop time would be the NTP
representation of the end of the last session three months later. By representation of the end of the last session three months later. By
default all fields are in seconds, so the "r=" and "t=" fields might default all fields are in seconds, so the "r=" and "t=" fields might
be: be:
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To make description more compact, times may also be given in units of To make description more compact, times may also be given in units of
days, hours or minutes. The syntax for these is a number immediately days, hours or minutes. The syntax for these is a number immediately
followed by a single case-sensitive character. Fractional units are followed by a single case-sensitive character. Fractional units are
not allowed - a smaller unit should be used instead. The following not allowed - a smaller unit should be used instead. The following
unit specification characters are allowed: unit specification characters are allowed:
d - days (86400 seconds) d - days (86400 seconds)
h - hours (3600 seconds) h - hours (3600 seconds)
m - minutes (60 seconds) m - minutes (60 seconds)
s - seconds (allowed for completeness but NOT RECOMMENDED) s - seconds (allowed for completeness)
Thus, the above session announcement could also have been written: Thus, the above session announcement could also have been written:
r=7d 1h 0 25h r=7d 1h 0 25h
Monthly and yearly repeats cannot be directly specified with a single Monthly and yearly repeats cannot be directly specified with a single
SDP repeat time - instead separate "t=" fields should be used to SDP repeat time - instead separate "t=" fields should be used to
explicitly list the session times. explicitly list the session times.
5.11 Time Zones ("z=") 5.11. Time Zones ("z=")
z=<adjustment time> <offset> <adjustment time> <offset> .... z=<adjustment time> <offset> <adjustment time> <offset> ....
To schedule a repeated session which spans a change from daylight To schedule a repeated session which spans a change from daylight
saving time to standard time or vice-versa, it is necessary to saving time to standard time or vice-versa, it is necessary to
specify offsets from the base time. This is required because specify offsets from the base time. This is required because
different time zones change time at different times of day, different different time zones change time at different times of day, different
countries change to or from daylight time on different dates, and countries change to or from daylight time on different dates, and
some countries do not have daylight saving time at all. some countries do not have daylight saving time at all.
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that at time 2898848070 the session's original time base is restored. that at time 2898848070 the session's original time base is restored.
Adjustments are always relative to the specified start time - they Adjustments are always relative to the specified start time - they
are not cumulative. Adjustments apply to all "t=" and "r=" lines in are not cumulative. Adjustments apply to all "t=" and "r=" lines in
a session description. a session description.
If a session is likely to last several years, it is expected that the If a session is likely to last several years, it is expected that the
session announcement will be modified periodically rather than session announcement will be modified periodically rather than
transmit several years worth of adjustments in one session transmit several years worth of adjustments in one session
announcement. announcement.
5.12 Encryption Keys ("k=") 5.12. Encryption Keys ("k=")
k=<method> k=<method>
k=<method>:<encryption key> k=<method>:<encryption key>
If transported over a secure and trusted channel, the session If transported over a secure and trusted channel, the session
description protocol MAY be used to convey encryption keys. A simple description protocol MAY be used to convey encryption keys. A simple
mechanism for key exchange is provided by the key field ("k=") mechanism for key exchange is provided by the key field ("k=")
although this is primarily supported for compatibility with older although this is primarily supported for compatibility with older
implementations and its use is NOT RECOMMENDED. Work is in progress implementations and its use is NOT RECOMMENDED. Work is in progress
to define new key exchange mechanisms for use with SDP [26] [27] and to define new key exchange mechanisms for use with SDP [28] [29] and
it is expected that new applications will use those mechanisms. it is expected that new applications will use those mechanisms.
A key field is permitted before the first media entry (in which case A key field is permitted before the first media entry (in which case
it applies to all media in the session), or for each media entry as it applies to all media in the session), or for each media entry as
required. The format of keys and their usage is outside the scope of required. The format of keys and their usage is outside the scope of
this document, and the key field provides no way to indicate the this document, and the key field provides no way to indicate the
encryption algorithm to be used, key type, or other information about encryption algorithm to be used, key type, or other information about
the key: this is assumed to be provided by the higher-level protocol the key: this is assumed to be provided by the higher-level protocol
using SDP. If there is a need to convey this information within SDP, using SDP. If there is a need to convey this information within SDP,
the extensions mentioned previously SHOULD be used. Many security the extensions mentioned previously SHOULD be used. Many security
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The encryption key is included untransformed in this key field. The encryption key is included untransformed in this key field.
This method MUST NOT be used unless it can be guaranteed that This method MUST NOT be used unless it can be guaranteed that
the SDP is conveyed over a secure channel. The encryption key the SDP is conveyed over a secure channel. The encryption key
is interpreted as text according to the charset attribute, use is interpreted as text according to the charset attribute, use
the "k=base64:" method to convey characters that are otherwise the "k=base64:" method to convey characters that are otherwise
prohibited in SDP. prohibited in SDP.
k=base64:<encoded encryption key> k=base64:<encoded encryption key>
The encryption key is included in this key field but has been The encryption key is included in this key field but has been
base64 encoded [12] because it includes characters that are base64 encoded [13] because it includes characters that are
prohibited in SDP. This method MUST NOT be used unless it can prohibited in SDP. This method MUST NOT be used unless it can
be guaranteed that the SDP is conveyed over a secure channel. be guaranteed that the SDP is conveyed over a secure channel.
k=uri:<URI to obtain key> k=uri:<URI to obtain key>
A Universal Resource Identifier is included in the key field. A Universal Resource Identifier is included in the key field.
The URI refers to the data containing the key, and may require The URI refers to the data containing the key, and may require
additional authentication before the key can be returned. When additional authentication before the key can be returned. When
a request is made to the given URI, the reply should specify a request is made to the given URI, the reply should specify
the encoding for the key. The URI is often a secure HTTP URI, the encoding for the key. The URI is often a a SSL/
although this is not required. TLS-protected HTTP URI ("https:"), although this is not
required.
k=prompt k=prompt
No key is included in this SDP description, but the session or No key is included in this SDP description, but the session or
media stream referred to by this key field is encrypted. The media stream referred to by this key field is encrypted. The
user should be prompted for the key when attempting to join the user should be prompted for the key when attempting to join the
session, and this user-supplied key should then be used to session, and this user-supplied key should then be used to
decrypt the media streams. The use of user-specified keys is decrypt the media streams. The use of user-specified keys is
NOT RECOMMENDED, since such keys tend to have weak security NOT RECOMMENDED, since such keys tend to have weak security
properties. properties.
The key field MUST NOT be used unless it can be guaranteed that the The key field MUST NOT be used unless it can be guaranteed that the
SDP is conveyed over a secure and trusted channel. An example of SDP is conveyed over a secure and trusted channel. An example of
such a channel might be SDP embedded inside an S/MIME message or a such a channel might be SDP embedded inside an S/MIME message or a
TLS-protected HTTP session. It is important to ensure that the TLS-protected HTTP session. It is important to ensure that the
secure channel is with the party that is authorised to join the secure channel is with the party that is authorised to join the
session, not an intermediary: if a caching proxy server is used, it session, not an intermediary: if a caching proxy server is used, it
is important to ensure that the proxy is either trusted or unable to is important to ensure that the proxy is either trusted or unable to
access the SDP. Definition of appropriate security measures is access the SDP.
beyond the scope of this specification, and should be defined by the
users of SDP.
5.13 Attributes ("a=") 5.13. Attributes ("a=")
a=<attribute> a=<attribute>
a=<attribute>:<value> a=<attribute>:<value>
Attributes are the primary means for extending SDP. Attributes may Attributes are the primary means for extending SDP. Attributes may
be defined to be used as "session-level" attributes, "media-level" be defined to be used as "session-level" attributes, "media-level"
attributes, or both. attributes, or both.
A media description may have any number of attributes ("a=" fields) A media description may have any number of attributes ("a=" fields)
which are media specific. These are referred to as "media-level" which are media specific. These are referred to as "media-level"
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normally affected by the "charset" attribute as this would make normally affected by the "charset" attribute as this would make
comparisons against known values problematic. However, when an comparisons against known values problematic. However, when an
attribute is defined, it can be defined to be charset-dependent, in attribute is defined, it can be defined to be charset-dependent, in
which case its value should be interpreted in the session charset which case its value should be interpreted in the session charset
rather than in ISO-10646. rather than in ISO-10646.
Attributes MUST be registered with IANA (see Section 8). If an Attributes MUST be registered with IANA (see Section 8). If an
attribute is received that is not understood, it MUST be ignored by attribute is received that is not understood, it MUST be ignored by
the receiver. the receiver.
5.14 Media Descriptions ("m=") 5.14. Media Descriptions ("m=")
m=<media> <port> <proto> <fmt> ... m=<media> <port> <proto> <fmt> ...
A session description may contain a number of media descriptions. A session description may contain a number of media descriptions.
Each media description starts with an "m=" field, and is terminated Each media description starts with an "m=" field, and is terminated
by either the next "m=" field or by the end of the session by either the next "m=" field or by the end of the session
description. A media field has several sub-fields: description. A media field has several sub-fields:
<media> is the media type. Currently defined media are "audio", <media> is the media type. Currently defined media are "audio",
"video", "text", "application" and "message", although this list "video", "text", "application" and "message", although this list
may be extended in future (see Section 8). may be extended in future (see Section 8).
<port> is the transport port to which the media stream is sent. The <port> is the transport port to which the media stream is sent. The
meaning of the transport port depends on the network being used as meaning of the transport port depends on the network being used as
specified in the relevant "c=" field, and on the transport specified in the relevant "c=" field, and on the transport
protocol defined in the <proto> sub-field of the media field. protocol defined in the <proto> sub-field of the media field.
Other ports used by the media application (such as the RTCP port Other ports used by the media application (such as the RTCP port
[18]) MAY be derived algorithmically from the base media port or [20]) MAY be derived algorithmically from the base media port or
MAY be specified in a separate attribute (for example "a=rtcp:" as MAY be specified in a separate attribute (for example "a=rtcp:" as
defined in [21]). defined in [23]).
If non-contiguous ports are used or if they don't follow the If non-contiguous ports are used or if they don't follow the
parity rule of even RTP ports and odd RTCP ports, the "a=rtcp:" parity rule of even RTP ports and odd RTCP ports, the "a=rtcp:"
attribute MUST be used. Applications that are requested to send attribute MUST be used. Applications that are requested to send
media to a <port> that is odd and where the "a=rtcp:" is present media to a <port> that is odd and where the "a=rtcp:" is present
MUST NOT substract 1 to the RTP port: i.e, they MUST send the RTP MUST NOT substract 1 to the RTP port: i.e, they MUST send the RTP
to the port indicated in <port> and send the RTCP to the port to the port indicated in <port> and send the RTCP to the port
indicated in the "a=rtcp" attribute. indicated in the "a=rtcp" attribute.
For applications where hierarchically encoded streams are being For applications where hierarchically encoded streams are being
skipping to change at page 23, line 4 skipping to change at page 22, line 41
m=<media> <port>/<number of ports> <proto> <fmt> ... m=<media> <port>/<number of ports> <proto> <fmt> ...
In such a case, the ports used depend on the transport protocol. In such a case, the ports used depend on the transport protocol.
For RTP, the default is that only the even numbered ports are used For RTP, the default is that only the even numbered ports are used
for data with the corresponding one-higher odd ports used for the for data with the corresponding one-higher odd ports used for the
RTCP belonging to the RTP session, and the <number of ports> RTCP belonging to the RTP session, and the <number of ports>
denoting the number of RTP sessions. For example: denoting the number of RTP sessions. For example:
m=video 49170/2 RTP/AVP 31 m=video 49170/2 RTP/AVP 31
would specify that ports 49170 and 49171 form one RTP/RTCP pair would specify that ports 49170 and 49171 form one RTP/RTCP pair
and 49172 and 49173 form the second RTP/RTCP pair. RTP/AVP is the and 49172 and 49173 form the second RTP/RTCP pair. RTP/AVP is the
transport protocol and 31 is the format (see below). If non- transport protocol and 31 is the format (see below). If non-
contiguous ports are required, they must be signalled using a contiguous ports are required, they must be signalled using a
separate attribute (for example "a=rtcp:" as defined in [21]). separate attribute (for example "a=rtcp:" as defined in [23]).
If multiple addresses are specified in the "c=" field and multiple If multiple addresses are specified in the "c=" field and multiple
ports are specified in the "m=" field, a one-to-one mapping from ports are specified in the "m=" field, a one-to-one mapping from
port to the corresponding address is implied. For example: port to the corresponding address is implied. For example:
c=IN IP4 224.2.1.1/127/2 c=IN IP4 224.2.1.1/127/2
m=video 49170/2 RTP/AVP 31 m=video 49170/2 RTP/AVP 31
would imply that address 224.2.1.1 is used with ports 49170 and would imply that address 224.2.1.1 is used with ports 49170 and
49171, and address 224.2.1.2 is used with ports 49172 and 49173. 49171, and address 224.2.1.2 is used with ports 49172 and 49173.
The combination of ports specified in "m=" lines and IP addresses The semantics of multiple "m=" lines using the same transport
specified in "c=" lines MUST comply with the following rules for address are undefined. This implies that, unlike limited past
RTP-based media streams (other protocols SHOULD define similar practice, there is no implicit grouping defined by such means and
rules): an explicit grouping framework (for example [19]) should instead
be used to express the intended semantics.
1. If two media sessions have the same transport address (i.e.
identical IP address and port numbers), the associated payload
types (e.g. given in the "a=rtpmap:" attribute) MUST NOT be in
conflict, i.e. the same payload type MUST NOT be mapped to
different media types.
2. If two media sessions have the same transport address, they
MUST use compatible media (e.g. both audio or both video).
3. If two media sessions have the same transport address, they
SHOULD operate under the same RTP profile. The sessions MAY
use two different RTP profiles only if those profiles are
specifically designed to be compatible.
4. If two media sessions have the same RTP transport address,
they MUST also use the same RTCP address and vice versa.
Two media sessions with the same transport address indicate
alternatives for the same media stream, i.e. all profiles, media
types, and payload types provided in any of the "m=" lines are
valid.
<proto> is the transport protocol. The meaning of the transport <proto> is the transport protocol. The meaning of the transport
protocol is dependent on the address type field in the relevant protocol is dependent on the address type field in the relevant
"c=" field. Thus a "c=" field of IP4 indicates that the transport "c=" field. Thus a "c=" field of IP4 indicates that the transport
protocol runs over IP4. The following transport protocols are protocol runs over IP4. The following transport protocols are
defined, but may be extended through registration of new protocols defined, but may be extended through registration of new protocols
with IANA (see Section 8): with IANA (see Section 8):
* udp: denotes an unspecified protocol running over UDP. * udp: denotes an unspecified protocol running over UDP.
* RTP/AVP: denotes RTP [18] used under the RTP Profile for Audio * RTP/AVP: denotes RTP [20] used under the RTP Profile for Audio
and Video Conferences with Minimal Control [19] running over and Video Conferences with Minimal Control [21] running over
UDP. UDP.
* RTP/SAVP: denotes the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol [22] * RTP/SAVP: denotes the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol [24]
running over UDP. running over UDP.
The main reason to specify the transport-protocol in addition to The main reason to specify the transport-protocol in addition to
the media format is that the same standard media formats may be the media format is that the same standard media formats may be
carried over different transport protocols even when the network carried over different transport protocols even when the network
protocol is the same - a historical example is vat PCM audio and protocol is the same - a historical example is vat PCM audio and
RTP PCM audio, another might be TCP/RTP PCM audio. In addition, RTP PCM audio, another might be TCP/RTP PCM audio. In addition,
relays and monitoring tools that are transport-protocol-specific relays and monitoring tools that are transport-protocol-specific
but format-independent are possible. but format-independent are possible.
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6. SDP Attributes 6. SDP Attributes
The following attributes are defined. Since application writers may The following attributes are defined. Since application writers may
add new attributes as they are required, this list is not exhaustive. add new attributes as they are required, this list is not exhaustive.
Registration procedures for new attributes are defined in Section Registration procedures for new attributes are defined in Section
8.2.4. 8.2.4.
a=cat:<category> a=cat:<category>
This attribute gives the dot-separated hierarchical category This attribute gives the dot-separated hierarchical category of
of the session. This is to enable a receiver to filter the session. This is to enable a receiver to filter unwanted
unwanted sessions by category. It is a session-level sessions by category. There is no central registry of
attribute, and is not dependent on charset. categories. It is a session-level attribute, and is not
dependent on charset.
a=keywds:<keywords> a=keywds:<keywords>
Like the cat attribute, this is to assist identifying wanted Like the cat attribute, this is to assist identifying wanted
sessions at the receiver. This allows a receiver to select sessions at the receiver. This allows a receiver to select
interesting session based on keywords describing the purpose interesting session based on keywords describing the purpose of
of the session. It is a session-level attribute. It is a the session; there is no central registry of keywords. It is a
charset dependent attribute, meaning that its value should be session-level attribute. It is a charset dependent attribute,
interpreted in the charset specified for the session meaning that its value should be interpreted in the charset
description if one is specified, or by default in ISO specified for the session description if one is specified, or
10646/UTF-8. by default in ISO 10646/UTF-8.
a=tool:<name and version of tool> a=tool:<name and version of tool>
This gives the name and version number of the tool used to This gives the name and version number of the tool used to
create the session description. It is a session-level create the session description. It is a session-level
attribute, and is not dependent on charset. attribute, and is not dependent on charset.
a=ptime:<packet time> a=ptime:<packet time>
This gives the length of time in milliseconds represented by This gives the length of time in milliseconds represented by
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This gives the length of time in milliseconds represented by This gives the length of time in milliseconds represented by
the media in a packet. This is probably only meaningful for the media in a packet. This is probably only meaningful for
audio data, but may be used with other media types if it makes audio data, but may be used with other media types if it makes
sense. It should not be necessary to know ptime to decode RTP sense. It should not be necessary to know ptime to decode RTP
or vat audio, and it is intended as a recommendation for the or vat audio, and it is intended as a recommendation for the
encoding/packetisation of audio. It is a media attribute, and encoding/packetisation of audio. It is a media attribute, and
is not dependent on charset. is not dependent on charset.
a=maxptime:<maximum packet time> a=maxptime:<maximum packet time>
The maximum amount of media which can be encapsulated in each The maximum amount of media which can be encapsulated in each
packet, expressed as time in milliseconds. The time SHALL be packet, expressed as time in milliseconds. The time SHALL be
calculated as the sum of the time the media present in the calculated as the sum of the time the media present in the
packet represents. For frame based codecs, the time SHOULD packet represents. For frame based codecs, the time SHOULD be
be an integer multiple of the frame size. This attribute is an integer multiple of the frame size. This attribute is
probably only meaningful for audio data, but may be used with probably only meaningful for audio data, but may be used with
other media types if it makes sense. It is a media attribute, other media types if it makes sense. It is a media attribute,
and is not dependent on charset. Note that this attribute was and is not dependent on charset. Note that this attribute was
introduced after RFC 2327, and non updated implementations will introduced after RFC 2327, and non updated implementations will
ignore this attribute. ignore this attribute.
a=rtpmap:<payload type> <encoding name>/<clock rate> a=rtpmap:<payload type> <encoding name>/<clock rate> [/<encoding
[/<encoding parameters>] parameters>]
This attribute maps from an RTP payload type number (as used in This attribute maps from an RTP payload type number (as used in
an "m=" line) to an encoding name denoting the payload format an "m=" line) to an encoding name denoting the payload format
to be used. It also provides information on the clock rate and to be used. It also provides information on the clock rate and
encoding parameters. It is a media level attribute that is not encoding parameters. It is a media level attribute that is not
dependent on charset. dependent on charset.
While an RTP profile may make static assignments of payload While an RTP profile may make static assignments of payload
type numbers to payload formats, it is more common for that type numbers to payload formats, it is more common for that
assignment to be done dynamically using "a=rtpmap:" attributes. assignment to be done dynamically using "a=rtpmap:" attributes.
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m=audio 49230 RTP/AVP 96 97 98 m=audio 49230 RTP/AVP 96 97 98
a=rtpmap:96 L8/8000 a=rtpmap:96 L8/8000
a=rtpmap:97 L16/8000 a=rtpmap:97 L16/8000
a=rtpmap:98 L16/11025/2 a=rtpmap:98 L16/11025/2
RTP profiles that specify the use of dynamic payload types MUST RTP profiles that specify the use of dynamic payload types MUST
define the set of valid encoding names and/or a means to define the set of valid encoding names and/or a means to
register encoding names if that profile is to be used with SDP. register encoding names if that profile is to be used with SDP.
The "RTP/AVP" and "RTP/SAVP" profiles use MIME sub-types for The "RTP/AVP" and "RTP/SAVP" profiles use MIME sub-types for
encoding names, under the top-level media type denoted in the encoding names, under the top-level media type denoted in the
"m=" line. In the example above, the media types are "audio/l8" "m=" line. In the example above, the media types are
and "audio/l16". "audio/l8" and "audio/l16".
For audio streams, <encoding parameters> indicates the For audio streams, <encoding parameters> indicates the number
number of audio channels. This parameter is OPTIONAL and of audio channels. This parameter is OPTIONAL and may be
may be omitted if the number of channels is one, provided omitted if the number of channels is one, provided no
no additional parameters are needed. additional parameters are needed.
For video streams, no encoding parameters are currently For video streams, no encoding parameters are currently
specified. specified.
Additional encoding parameters MAY be defined in the future, Additional encoding parameters MAY be defined in the future,
but codec specific parameters SHOULD NOT be added. Parameters but codec specific parameters SHOULD NOT be added. Parameters
added to an "a=rtpmap:" attribute SHOULD only be those required added to an "a=rtpmap:" attribute SHOULD only be those required
for a session directory to make the choice of appropriate media for a session directory to make the choice of appropriate media
to participate in a session. Codec-specific parameters should to participate in a session. Codec-specific parameters should
be added in other attributes (for example, "a=fmtp:"). be added in other attributes (for example, "a=fmtp:").
Note: RTP audio formats typically do not include information Note: RTP audio formats typically do not include information
about the number of samples per packet. If a non-default (as about the number of samples per packet. If a non-default (as
defined in the RTP Audio/Video Profile) packetisation is defined in the RTP Audio/Video Profile) packetisation is
required, the "ptime" attribute is used as given below. required, the "ptime" attribute is used as given below.
a=recvonly a=recvonly
This specifies that the tools should be started in receive This specifies that the tools should be started in receive only
only mode where applicable. It can be either a session or mode where applicable. It can be either a session or media
media attribute, and is not dependent on charset. Note that attribute, and is not dependent on charset. Note that recvonly
recvonly applies to the media only, not to any associated applies to the media only, not to any associated control
control protocol (e.g. an RTP based system in recvonly mode protocol (e.g. an RTP based system in recvonly mode SHOULD
SHOULD still send RTCP packets). still send RTCP packets).
a=sendrecv a=sendrecv
This specifies that the tools should be started in send and This specifies that the tools should be started in send and
receive mode. This is necessary for interactive conferences receive mode. This is necessary for interactive conferences
with tools that default to receive only mode. It can be either with tools that default to receive only mode. It can be either
a session or media attribute, and is not dependent on charset. a session or media attribute, and is not dependent on charset.
If none of the attributes "sendonly", "recvonly", "inactive", If none of the attributes "sendonly", "recvonly", "inactive",
and "sendrecv" is present, "sendrecv" SHOULD be assumed as the and "sendrecv" is present, "sendrecv" SHOULD be assumed as the
default for sessions which are not of the conference type default for sessions which are not of the conference type
"broadcast" or "H332" (see below). "broadcast" or "H332" (see below).
a=sendonly a=sendonly
This specifies that the tools should be started in send-only This specifies that the tools should be started in send-only
mode. An example may be where a different unicast address is mode. An example may be where a different unicast address is
to be used for a traffic destination than for a traffic to be used for a traffic destination than for a traffic source.
source. In such a case, two media descriptions may be used, In such a case, two media descriptions may be used, one
one sendonly and one recvonly. It can be either a session or sendonly and one recvonly. It can be either a session or media
media attribute, but would normally only be used as a media attribute, but would normally only be used as a media
attribute. It is not dependent on charset. Note that sendonly attribute. It is not dependent on charset. Note that sendonly
applies only to the media, and any associated control protocol applies only to the media, and any associated control protocol
(e.g. RTCP) SHOULD still be received and processed as normal. (e.g. RTCP) SHOULD still be received and processed as normal.
a=inactive a=inactive
This specifies that the tools should be started in inactive This specifies that the tools should be started in inactive
mode. This is necessary for interactive conferences where mode. This is necessary for interactive conferences where
users can put other users on hold. No media is sent over an users can put other users on hold. No media is sent over an
inactive media stream. Note that an RTP based system SHOULD inactive media stream. Note that an RTP based system SHOULD
still send RTCP, even if started inactive. It can be either a still send RTCP, even if started inactive. It can be either a
session or media attribute, and is not dependent on charset. session or media attribute, and is not dependent on charset.
a=orient:<orientation> a=orient:<orientation>
Normally this is only used for a whiteboard or presentation Normally this is only used for a whiteboard or presentation
tool. It specifies the orientation of a the workspace on tool. It specifies the orientation of a the workspace on the
the screen. It is a media attribute. Permitted values are screen. It is a media attribute. Permitted values are
"portrait", "landscape" and "seascape" (upside down landscape). "portrait", "landscape" and "seascape" (upside down landscape).
It is not dependent on charset. It is not dependent on charset.
a=type:<conference type> a=type:<conference type>
This specifies the type of the conference. Suggested values This specifies the type of the conference. Suggested values
are "broadcast", "meeting", "moderated", "test" and "H332". are "broadcast", "meeting", "moderated", "test" and "H332".
"recvonly" should be the default for "type:broadcast" "recvonly" should be the default for "type:broadcast" sessions,
sessions, "type:meeting" should imply "sendrecv" and "type:meeting" should imply "sendrecv" and "type:moderated"
"type:moderated" should indicate the use of a floor control should indicate the use of a floor control tool and that the
tool and that the media tools are started so as to mute new media tools are started so as to mute new sites joining the
sites joining the conference. conference.
Specifying the attribute "type:H332" indicates that this Specifying the attribute "type:H332" indicates that this
loosely coupled session is part of a H.332 session as defined loosely coupled session is part of a H.332 session as defined
in the ITU H.332 specification [15]. Media tools should be in the ITU H.332 specification [27]. Media tools should be
started "recvonly". started "recvonly".
Specifying the attribute "type:test" is suggested as a hint Specifying the attribute "type:test" is suggested as a hint
that, unless explicitly requested otherwise, receivers can that, unless explicitly requested otherwise, receivers can
safely avoid displaying this session description to users. safely avoid displaying this session description to users.
The type attribute is a session-level attribute, and is not The type attribute is a session-level attribute, and is not
dependent on charset. dependent on charset.
a=charset:<character set> a=charset:<character set>
This specifies the character set to be used to display the This specifies the character set to be used to display the
session name and information data. By default, the ISO-10646 session name and information data. By default, the ISO-10646
character set in UTF-8 encoding is used. If a more compact character set in UTF-8 encoding is used. If a more compact
representation is required, other character sets may be used. representation is required, other character sets may be used.
For example, the ISO 8859-1 is specified with the following For example, the ISO 8859-1 is specified with the following SDP
SDP attribute: attribute:
a=charset:ISO-8859-1 a=charset:ISO-8859-1
This is a session-level attribute and is not dependent on This is a session-level attribute and is not dependent on
charset. The charset specified MUST be one of those registered charset. The charset specified MUST be one of those registered
with IANA, such as ISO-8859-1. The character set identifier is with IANA, such as ISO-8859-1. The character set identifier is
a US-ASCII string and MUST be compared against the IANA a US-ASCII string and MUST be compared against the IANA
identifiers using a case insensitive comparison. If the identifiers using a case insensitive comparison. If the
identifier is not recognised or not supported, all strings that identifier is not recognised or not supported, all strings that
are affected by it SHOULD be regarded as octet strings. are affected by it SHOULD be regarded as octet strings.
Note that a character set specified MUST still prohibit the Note that a character set specified MUST still prohibit the use
use of bytes 0x00 (Nul), 0x0A (LF) and 0x0d (CR). Character of bytes 0x00 (Nul), 0x0A (LF) and 0x0d (CR). Character sets
sets requiring the use of these characters MUST define a requiring the use of these characters MUST define a quoting
quoting mechanism that prevents these bytes appearing within mechanism that prevents these bytes appearing within text
text fields. fields.
a=sdplang:<language tag> a=sdplang:<language tag>
This can be a session level attribute or a media level This can be a session level attribute or a media level
attribute. As a session level attribute, it specifies the attribute. As a session level attribute, it specifies the
language for the session description. As a media level language for the session description. As a media level
attribute, it specifies the language for any media-level SDP attribute, it specifies the language for any media-level SDP
information field associated with that media. Multiple information field associated with that media. Multiple sdplang
sdplang attributes can be provided either at session or media attributes can be provided either at session or media level if
level if multiple languages in the session description or multiple languages in the session description or media use
media use multiple languages, in which case the order of the multiple languages, in which case the order of the attributes
attributes indicates the order of importance of the various indicates the order of importance of the various languages in
languages in the session or media from most important to least the session or media from most important to least important.
important.
In general, sending session descriptions consisting of In general, sending session descriptions consisting of multiple
multiple languages is discouraged. Instead, multiple languages is discouraged. Instead, multiple descriptions
descriptions SHOULD be sent describing the session, one in SHOULD be sent describing the session, one in each language.
each language. However this is not possible with all However this is not possible with all transport mechanisms, and
transport mechanisms, and so multiple sdplang attributes are so multiple sdplang attributes are allowed although NOT
allowed although NOT RECOMMENDED. RECOMMENDED.
The "sdplang" attribute value must be a single RFC 3066 The "sdplang" attribute value must be a single RFC 3066
language tag in US-ASCII [6]. It is not dependent on language tag in US-ASCII [10]. It is not dependent on the
the charset attribute. An "sdplang" attribute SHOULD be charset attribute. An "sdplang" attribute SHOULD be specified
specified when a session is of sufficient scope to cross when a session is of sufficient scope to cross geographic
geographic boundaries where the language of recipients cannot boundaries where the language of recipients cannot be assumed,
be assumed, or where the session is in a different language or where the session is in a different language from the
from the locally assumed norm. locally assumed norm.
a=lang:<language tag> a=lang:<language tag>
This can be a session level attribute or a media level This can be a session level attribute or a media level
attribute. As a session level attribute, it specifies the attribute. As a session level attribute, it specifies the
default language for the session being described. As a media default language for the session being described. As a media
level attribute, it specifies the language for that media, level attribute, it specifies the language for that media,
overriding any session-level language specified. Multiple overriding any session-level language specified. Multiple lang
lang attributes can be provided either at session or media attributes can be provided either at session or media level if
level if the session description or media use multiple the session description or media use multiple languages, in
languages, in which case the order of the attributes indicates which case the order of the attributes indicates the order of
the order of importance of the various languages in the importance of the various languages in the session or media
session or media from most important to least important. from most important to least important.
The "lang" attribute value must be a single RFC 3066 language The "lang" attribute value must be a single RFC 3066 language
tag in US-ASCII [6]. It is not dependent on the charset tag in US-ASCII [10]. It is not dependent on the charset
attribute. A "lang" attribute SHOULD be specified when a attribute. A "lang" attribute SHOULD be specified when a
session is of sufficient scope to cross geographic boundaries session is of sufficient scope to cross geographic boundaries
where the language of recipients cannot be assumed, or where where the language of recipients cannot be assumed, or where
the session is in a different language from the locally the session is in a different language from the locally assumed
assumed norm. norm.
a=framerate:<frame rate> a=framerate:<frame rate>
This gives the maximum video frame rate in frames/sec. It is This gives the maximum video frame rate in frames/sec. It is
intended as a recommendation for the encoding of video data. intended as a recommendation for the encoding of video data.
Decimal representations of fractional values using the Decimal representations of fractional values using the notation
notation "<integer>.<fraction>" are allowed. It is a "<integer>.<fraction>" are allowed. It is a media attribute,
media attribute, defined only for video media, and is not defined only for video media, and is not dependent on charset.
dependent on charset.
a=quality:<quality> a=quality:<quality>
This gives a suggestion for the quality of the encoding as an This gives a suggestion for the quality of the encoding as an
integer value. The intention of the quality attribute for integer value. The intention of the quality attribute for
video is to specify a non-default trade-off between frame-rate video is to specify a non-default trade-off between frame-rate
and still-image quality. For video, the value in the range 0 and still-image quality. For video, the value in the range 0
to 10, with the following suggested meaning: to 10, with the following suggested meaning:
10 - the best still-image quality the compression scheme 10 - the best still-image quality the compression scheme
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a=quality:<quality> a=quality:<quality>
This gives a suggestion for the quality of the encoding as an This gives a suggestion for the quality of the encoding as an
integer value. The intention of the quality attribute for integer value. The intention of the quality attribute for
video is to specify a non-default trade-off between frame-rate video is to specify a non-default trade-off between frame-rate
and still-image quality. For video, the value in the range 0 and still-image quality. For video, the value in the range 0
to 10, with the following suggested meaning: to 10, with the following suggested meaning:
10 - the best still-image quality the compression scheme 10 - the best still-image quality the compression scheme
can give. can give.
5 - the default behaviour given no quality suggestion. 5 - the default behaviour given no quality suggestion.
0 - the worst still-image quality the codec designer 0 - the worst still-image quality the codec designer
thinks is still usable. thinks is still usable.
It is a media attribute, and is not dependent on charset. It is a media attribute, and is not dependent on charset.
a=fmtp:<format> <format specific parameters> a=fmtp:<format> <format specific parameters>
This attribute allows parameters that are specific to a This attribute allows parameters that are specific to a
particular format to be conveyed in a way that SDP doesn't particular format to be conveyed in a way that SDP doesn't have
have to understand them. The format must be one of the to understand them. The format must be one of the formats
formats specified for the media. Format-specific parameters specified for the media. Format-specific parameters may be any
may be any set of parameters required to be conveyed by SDP set of parameters required to be conveyed by SDP and given
and given unchanged to the media tool that will use this unchanged to the media tool that will use this format. At most
format. At most one instance of this attribute is allowed one instance of this attribute is allowed for each format.
for each format.
It is a media attribute, and is not dependent on charset. It is a media attribute, and is not dependent on charset.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
SDP is frequently used with the Session Initiation Protocol [15] SDP is frequently used with the Session Initiation Protocol [16]
using the offer/answer model [17] to agree parameters for unicast using the offer/answer model [18] to agree on parameters for unicast
sessions. When used in this manner, the security considerations of sessions. When used in this manner, the security considerations of
those protocols apply. those protocols apply.
SDP is a session description format that describes multimedia SDP is a session description format that describes multimedia
sessions. A session description SHOULD NOT be trusted unless it has sessions. Entities receiving and acting upon an SDP message SHOULD
been obtained by an authenticated transport protocol from a trusted be aware that a session description cannot be trusted unless it has
source. Many different transport protocols may be used to distribute been obtained by an authenticated transport protocol from a known and
session description, and the nature of the authentication will differ trusted source. Many different transport protocols may be used to
from transport to transport. distribute session description, and the nature of the authentication
will differ from transport to transport. For some transports,
security features are often not deployed. In case a session
description has not been obtained in a trusted manner, the endpoint
SHOULD exercise care because, among other attacks, the media sessions
received may not be the intended ones, the destination where media is
sent to may not be the expected one, any the parameters of the
session may be incorrect, or the media security may be compromised.
It is up to the endpoint to take a sensible decision taking into
account the security risks of the application and the user
preferences and may decide to inquire the user whether or not to
accept the session.
One transport that will frequently be used to distribute session One transport that can be used to distribute session descriptions is
descriptions is the Session Announcement Protocol (SAP). SAP the Session Announcement Protocol (SAP). SAP provides both
provides both encryption and authentication mechanisms but due to the encryption and authentication mechanisms but due to the nature of
nature of session announcements it is likely that there are many session announcements it is likely that there are many occasions
occasions where the originator of a session announcement cannot be where the originator of a session announcement cannot be
authenticated because they are previously unknown to the receiver of authenticated because they are previously unknown to the receiver of
the announcement and because no common public key infrastructure is the announcement and because no common public key infrastructure is
available. available.
On receiving a session description over an unauthenticated transport On receiving a session description over an unauthenticated transport
mechanism or from an untrusted party, software parsing the session mechanism or from an untrusted party, software parsing the session
should take a few precautions. Session descriptions contain should take a few precautions. Session descriptions contain
information required to start software on the receivers system. information required to start software on the receivers system.
Software that parses a session description MUST NOT be able to start Software that parses a session description MUST NOT be able to start
other software except that which is specifically configured as other software except that which is specifically configured as
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In this specification, there are no attributes which would allow the In this specification, there are no attributes which would allow the
recipient of a session description to be informed to start multimedia recipient of a session description to be informed to start multimedia
tools in a mode where they default to transmitting. Under some tools in a mode where they default to transmitting. Under some
circumstances it might be appropriate to define such attributes. If circumstances it might be appropriate to define such attributes. If
this is done an application parsing a session description containing this is done an application parsing a session description containing
such attributes SHOULD either ignore them, or inform the user that such attributes SHOULD either ignore them, or inform the user that
joining this session will result in the automatic transmission of joining this session will result in the automatic transmission of
multimedia data. The default behaviour for an unknown attribute is multimedia data. The default behaviour for an unknown attribute is
to ignore it. to ignore it.
Session descriptions may be parsed at intermediate systems such as In certain environments is has become common for intermediary systems
firewalls for the purposes of opening a hole in the firewall to allow to intercept and analyse session descriptions contained within other
participation in multimedia sessions. This SHOULD NOT be done unless signalling protocols. This is done for a range of purposes,
the SDP is conveyed in a manner that allows proper authentication and including but not limited to: opening holes in firewalls to allow
authorization checks to ensure that firewall holes are only opened in media streams to pass, or to mark, prioritize, or block traffic
accordance with applicable security policy. SDP by itself does not selectively. In some cases, such intermediary systems may modify the
include sufficient information to enable these checks: they depend on session description, for example to have the contents of the session
the encapsulating protocol (e.g. SIP or RTSP). description match NAT bindings dynamically created. These behaviors
are NOT RECOMMENDED unless the session description is conveyed in
such a manner that allows the intermediary system to conduct proper
checks to establish the authenticity of the session description, and
the authority of its source to establish such communication sessions.
SDP by itself does not include sufficient information to enable these
checks: they depend on the encapsulating protocol (e.g. SIP or
RTSP).
Use of the "k=" field poses a significant security risk, since it Use of the "k=" field poses a significant security risk, since it
conveys session encryption keys in the clear. SDP MUST NOT be used conveys session encryption keys in the clear. SDP MUST NOT be used
to convey key material, unless it can be guaranteed that the channel to convey key material, unless it can be guaranteed that the channel
over which the SDP is delivered is both private and authenticated. over which the SDP is delivered is both private and authenticated.
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
8.1 The "application/sdp" media type 8.1. The "application/sdp" media type
One MIME media type registration from RFC 2327 is to be updated, as One MIME media type registration from RFC 2327 is to be updated, as
defined below. defined below.
To: ietf-types@iana.org To: ietf-types@iana.org
Subject: Registration of media type "application/sdp" Subject: Registration of media type "application/sdp"
MIME media type name: application MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: sdp MIME subtype name: sdp
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Mark Handley <M.Handley@cs.ucl.ac.uk> Mark Handley <M.Handley@cs.ucl.ac.uk>
Colin Perkins <csp@csperkins.org> Colin Perkins <csp@csperkins.org>
IETF MMUSIC working group <mmusic@ietf.org> IETF MMUSIC working group <mmusic@ietf.org>
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Author/Change controller: Author/Change controller:
Authors of RFC XXXX Authors of RFC XXXX
IETF MMUSIC working group delegated from the IESG IETF MMUSIC working group delegated from the IESG
8.2 Registration of Parameters 8.2. Registration of Parameters
There are seven field names that may be registered with IANA. Using There are seven field names that may be registered with IANA. Using
the terminology in the SDP specification BNF, they are "media", the terminology in the SDP specification BNF, they are "media",
"proto", "fmt", "att-field", "bwtype", "nettype" and "addrtype". "proto", "fmt", "att-field", "bwtype", "nettype" and "addrtype".
8.2.1 Media types ("media") 8.2.1. Media types ("media")
The set of media types is intended to be small and SHOULD NOT be The set of media types is intended to be small and SHOULD NOT be
extended except under rare circumstances. The same rules should extended except under rare circumstances. The same rules should
apply for media names as for top-level MIME content types, and where apply for media names as for top-level MIME content types, and where
possible the same name should be registered for SDP as for MIME. For possible the same name should be registered for SDP as for MIME. For
media other than existing MIME top-level content types, a standards- media other than existing MIME top-level content types, a standards-
track RFC MUST be produced for a new top-level content type to be track RFC MUST be produced for a new top-level content type to be
registered, and the registration MUST provide good justification why registered, and the registration MUST provide good justification why
no existing media name is appropriate (the "Standards Action" policy no existing media name is appropriate (the "Standards Action" policy
of RFC 2434 [8]. of RFC 2434 [8].
This memo registers the media types "audio", "video", "text", This memo registers the media types "audio", "video", "text",
"application" and "message". "application" and "message".
Note: The media types "control" and "data" were listed as valid in Note: The media types "control" and "data" were listed as valid in
the previous version of this specification [6], however their the previous version of this specification [6], however their
semantics were never fully specified and they are not widely used. semantics were never fully specified and they are not widely used.
These media types have been removed in this specification, although These media types have been removed in this specification, although
they still remain valid media type capabilities for a SIP user agent they still remain valid media type capabilities for a SIP user agent
as defined in RFC 3840 [23]. If these media types are considered as defined in RFC 3840 [25]. If these media types are considered
useful in future, a Standards Track RFC MUST be produced to document useful in future, a Standards Track RFC MUST be produced to document
their use. Until that is done, applications SHOULD NOT use these their use. Until that is done, applications SHOULD NOT use these
types and SHOULD NOT declare support for them in SIP capabilities types and SHOULD NOT declare support for them in SIP capabilities
declarations (even though they exist in the registry created by RFC declarations (even though they exist in the registry created by RFC
3840). 3840).
8.2.2 Transport protocols ("proto") 8.2.2. Transport protocols ("proto")
The "proto" field describes the transport protocol used. This SHOULD The "proto" field describes the transport protocol used. This SHOULD
reference a standards-track protocol RFC. This memo registers three reference a standards-track protocol RFC. This memo registers three
values: "RTP/AVP" is a reference to RTP [18] used under the RTP values: "RTP/AVP" is a reference to RTP [20] used under the RTP
Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control [19] Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control [21]
running over UDP/IP, "RTP/SAVP" is a reference to the Secure Real- running over UDP/IP, "RTP/SAVP" is a reference to the Secure Real-
time Transport Protocol [22], and "udp" indicates an unspecified time Transport Protocol [24], and "udp" indicates an unspecified
protocol over UDP. protocol over UDP.
If other RTP profiles are defined in the future, their "proto" name If other RTP profiles are defined in the future, their "proto" name
SHOULD be specified in the same manner. For example, an RTP profile SHOULD be specified in the same manner. For example, an RTP profile
whose short name is "XYZ" would be denoted by a "proto" field of whose short name is "XYZ" would be denoted by a "proto" field of
"RTP/XYZ". "RTP/XYZ".
New transport protocols SHOULD be registered with IANA. New transport protocols SHOULD be registered with IANA.
Registrations MUST reference an RFC describing the protocol. Such an Registrations MUST reference an RFC describing the protocol. Such an
RFC MAY be Experimental or Informational, although it is preferable RFC MAY be Experimental or Informational, although it is preferable
if it is Standards-Track. Registrations MUST also define the rules if it is Standards-Track. Registrations MUST also define the rules
by which their "fmt" namespace is managed (see below). by which their "fmt" namespace is managed (see below).
8.2.3 Media formats ("fmt") 8.2.3. Media formats ("fmt")
Each transport protocol, defined by the "proto" field, has an Each transport protocol, defined by the "proto" field, has an
associated "fmt" namespace that describes the media formats which may associated "fmt" namespace that describes the media formats which may
conveyed by that protocol. Formats cover all the possible encodings conveyed by that protocol. Formats cover all the possible encodings
that might want to be transported in a multimedia session. that might want to be transported in a multimedia session.
RTP payload formats under the "RTP/AVP" and "RTP/SAVP" profiles MUST RTP payload formats under the "RTP/AVP" and "RTP/SAVP" profiles MUST
use the payload type number as their "fmt" value. If the payload use the payload type number as their "fmt" value. If the payload
type number is dynamically assigned by this session description, an type number is dynamically assigned by this session description, an
additional "rtpmap" attribute MUST be included to specify the format additional "rtpmap" attribute MUST be included to specify the format
skipping to change at page 35, line 40 skipping to change at page 35, line 40
through the IETF process (RFC 2048) by production of, or reference through the IETF process (RFC 2048) by production of, or reference
to, a standards-track RFC that defines the transport protocol for the to, a standards-track RFC that defines the transport protocol for the
format. format.
For other protocols, formats MAY be registered according to the rules For other protocols, formats MAY be registered according to the rules
of the associated "proto" specification. of the associated "proto" specification.
Registrations of new formats MUST specify which transport protocols Registrations of new formats MUST specify which transport protocols
they apply to. they apply to.
8.2.4 Attribute names ("att-field") 8.2.4. Attribute names ("att-field")
Attribute field names ("att-field") MUST be registered with IANA and Attribute field names ("att-field") MUST be registered with IANA and
documented, because of noticeable issues due to conflicting documented, because of noticeable issues due to conflicting
attributes under the same name. Unknown attributes in SDP are simply attributes under the same name. Unknown attributes in SDP are simply
ignored, but conflicting ones that fragment the protocol are a ignored, but conflicting ones that fragment the protocol are a
serious problem. serious problem.
New attribute registrations are accepted according to the New attribute registrations are accepted according to the
"Specification Required" policy of RFC 2434, provided that the "Specification Required" policy of RFC 2434, provided that the
specification includes the following information: specification includes the following information:
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inactive | Either | No inactive | Either | No
orient | Media | No orient | Media | No
type | Session | No type | Session | No
charset | Session | No charset | Session | No
sdplang | Either | No sdplang | Either | No
lang | Either | No lang | Either | No
framerate | Media | No framerate | Media | No
quality | Media | No quality | Media | No
fmtp | Media | No fmtp | Media | No
8.2.5 Bandwidth specifiers ("bwtype") 8.2.5. Bandwidth specifiers ("bwtype")
A proliferation of bandwidth specifiers is strongly discouraged. A proliferation of bandwidth specifiers is strongly discouraged.
New bandwidth specifiers ("bwtype" fields) MUST be registered with New bandwidth specifiers ("bwtype" fields) MUST be registered with
IANA. The submission MUST reference a standards-track RFC specifying IANA. The submission MUST reference a standards-track RFC specifying
the semantics of the bandwidth specifier precisely, and indicating the semantics of the bandwidth specifier precisely, and indicating
when it should be used, and why the existing registered bandwidth when it should be used, and why the existing registered bandwidth
specifiers do not suffice. specifiers do not suffice.
IANA is requested to register the bandwith specifiers "CT" and "AS" IANA is requested to register the bandwith specifiers "CT" and "AS"
with definitions as in Section 5.8 of this memo (these definitions with definitions as in Section 5.8 of this memo (these definitions
update those in RFC 2327). update those in RFC 2327).
8.2.6 Network types ("nettype") 8.2.6. Network types ("nettype")
New network types (the "nettype" field) may be registered with IANA New network types (the "nettype" field) may be registered with IANA
if SDP needs to be used in the context of non-Internet environments. if SDP needs to be used in the context of non-Internet environments.
Whilst these are not normally the preserve of IANA, there may be Whilst these are not normally the preserve of IANA, there may be
circumstances when an Internet application needs to interoperate with circumstances when an Internet application needs to interoperate with
a non- Internet application, such as when gatewaying an Internet a non- Internet application, such as when gatewaying an Internet
telephony call into the PSTN. The number of network types should be telephony call into the PSTN. The number of network types should be
small and should be rarely extended. A new network type cannot be small and should be rarely extended. A new network type cannot be
registered without registering at least one address type to be used registered without registering at least one address type to be used
with that network type. A new network type registration MUST with that network type. A new network type registration MUST
reference an RFC which gives details of the network type and address reference an RFC which gives details of the network type and address
type and specifies how and when they would be used. type and specifies how and when they would be used.
IANA is requested to register the network type "IN" to represent the IANA is requested to register the network type "IN" to represent the
Internet, with definition as in Sections 5.2 and 5.7 of this memo Internet, with definition as in Sections 5.2 and 5.7 of this memo
(these definitions update those in RFC 2327). (these definitions update those in RFC 2327).
8.2.7 Address types ("addrtype") 8.2.7. Address types ("addrtype")
New address types ("addrtype") may be registered with IANA. An New address types ("addrtype") may be registered with IANA. An
address type is only meaningful in the context of a network type, and address type is only meaningful in the context of a network type, and
any registration of an address type MUST specify a registered network any registration of an address type MUST specify a registered network
type, or be submitted along with a network type registration. A new type, or be submitted along with a network type registration. A new
address type registration MUST reference an RFC giving details of the address type registration MUST reference an RFC giving details of the
syntax of the address type. Address types are not expected to be syntax of the address type. Address types are not expected to be
registered frequently. registered frequently.
IANA is requested to register the address types "IP4" and "IP6" with IANA is requested to register the address types "IP4" and "IP6" with
definitions as in Sections 5.2 and 5.7 of this memo (these definitions as in Sections 5.2 and 5.7 of this memo (these
definitions update those in RFC 2327). definitions update those in RFC 2327).
8.2.8 Registration Procedure 8.2.8. Registration Procedure
In the RFC documentation that registers SDP "media", "proto", "fmt", In the RFC documentation that registers SDP "media", "proto", "fmt",
"bwtype", "nettype" and "addrtype" fields, the authors MUST include "bwtype", "nettype" and "addrtype" fields, the authors MUST include
the following information for IANA to place in the appropriate the following information for IANA to place in the appropriate
registry: registry:
o contact name, email address and telephone number o contact name, email address and telephone number
o name being registered (as it will appear in SDP) o name being registered (as it will appear in SDP)
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o a one paragraph explanation of the purpose of the registered name. o a one paragraph explanation of the purpose of the registered name.
o a reference to the specification for the registered name (this o a reference to the specification for the registered name (this
will typically be an RFC number). will typically be an RFC number).
IANA may refer any registration to the IESG Transport Area Directors IANA may refer any registration to the IESG Transport Area Directors
for review, and may request revisions to be made before a for review, and may request revisions to be made before a
registration will be made. registration will be made.
8.3 Encryption Key Access Methods 8.3. Encryption Key Access Methods
The IANA currently maintains a table of SDP encryption key access The IANA currently maintains a table of SDP encryption key access
method ("enckey") names. This table is obsolete and SHOULD be method ("enckey") names. This table is obsolete and SHOULD be
removed, since the "k=" line is not extensible. New registrations removed, since the "k=" line is not extensible. New registrations
MUST NOT be accepted. MUST NOT be accepted.
9. SDP Grammar 9. SDP Grammar
This section provides an Augmented BNF grammar for SDP. ABNF is This section provides an Augmented BNF grammar for SDP. ABNF is
defined in [4]. defined in [4].
skipping to change at page 45, line 6 skipping to change at page 45, line 7
Most uses of the "x-" prefix notation for experimental parameters are Most uses of the "x-" prefix notation for experimental parameters are
disallowed and the other uses are deprecated. disallowed and the other uses are deprecated.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
Many people in the IETF Multiparty Multimedia Session Control Many people in the IETF Multiparty Multimedia Session Control
(MMUSIC) working group have made comments and suggestions (MMUSIC) working group have made comments and suggestions
contributing to this document. In particular, we would like to thank contributing to this document. In particular, we would like to thank
Eve Schooler, Steve Casner, Bill Fenner, Allison Mankin, Ross Eve Schooler, Steve Casner, Bill Fenner, Allison Mankin, Ross
Finlayson, Peter Parnes, Joerg Ott, Carsten Bormann, Steve Hanna, Finlayson, Peter Parnes, Joerg Ott, Carsten Bormann, Steve Hanna,
Jonathan Lennox, Keith Drage, Sean Olson, Bernie Hoeneisen and Jonathan Lennox, Keith Drage, Sean Olson, Bernie Hoeneisen, Jonathan
Jonathan Rosenberg. Rosenberg, John Elwell, Flemming Andreasen, Jon Peterson and Spencer
Dawkins.
12. References 12. References
12.1 Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[1] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", [1] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987. STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.
[2] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [2] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
[3] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [3] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
skipping to change at page 45, line 45 skipping to change at page 45, line 47
[8] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA [8] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
[9] Hinden, R., Carpenter, B., and L. Masinter, "Format for Literal [9] Hinden, R., Carpenter, B., and L. Masinter, "Format for Literal
IPv6 Addresses in URL's", RFC 2732, December 1999. IPv6 Addresses in URL's", RFC 2732, December 1999.
[10] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of Languages", [10] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of Languages",
BCP 47, RFC 3066, January 2001. BCP 47, RFC 3066, January 2001.
[11] Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello, [11] Olson, S., Camarillo, G., and A. Roach, "Support for IPv6 in
Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3266, June 2002.
[12] Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
"Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)", "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
RFC 3490, March 2003. RFC 3490, March 2003.
[12] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings", [13] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings",
RFC 3548, July 2003. RFC 3548, July 2003.
12.2 Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[13] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, [14] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification,
Implementation", RFC 1305, March 1992. Implementation", RFC 1305, March 1992.
[14] Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session Announcement [15] Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session Announcement
Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000. Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000.
[15] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., [16] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.
[16] Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., and R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming [17] Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., and R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming
Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 2326, April 1998. Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 2326, April 1998.
[17] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with [18] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002. Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.
[18] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson, [19] Camarillo, G., Eriksson, G., Holler, J., and H. Schulzrinne,
"Grouping of Media Lines in the Session Description Protocol
(SDP)", RFC 3388, December 2002.
[20] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
"RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
RFC 3550, July 2003. RFC 3550, July 2003.
[19] Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and Video [21] Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and Video
Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551, July 2003. Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551, July 2003.
[20] Casner, S., "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Bandwidth [22] Casner, S., "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Bandwidth
Modifiers for RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Bandwidth", RFC 3556, Modifiers for RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Bandwidth", RFC 3556,
July 2003. July 2003.
[21] Huitema, C., "Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) attribute in [23] Huitema, C., "Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) attribute in
Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3605, October 2003. Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3605, October 2003.
[22] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K. [24] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
RFC 3711, March 2004. RFC 3711, March 2004.
[23] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating [25] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating
User Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol User Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004. (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.
[24] Westerlund, M., "A Transport Independent Bandwidth Modifier for [26] Westerlund, M., "A Transport Independent Bandwidth Modifier for
the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3890, the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3890,
September 2004. September 2004.
[25] International Telecommunications Union, "H.323 extended for [27] International Telecommunications Union, "H.323 extended for
loosely coupled conferences", ITU Recommendation H.332, loosely coupled conferences", ITU Recommendation H.332,
September 1998. September 1998.
[26] Arkko, J., Carrara, E., Lindholm, F., Naslund, M., and K. [28] Arkko, J., Carrara, E., Lindholm, F., Naslund, M., and K.
Norrman, "Key Management Extensions for Session Description Norrman, "Key Management Extensions for Session Description
Protocol (SDP) and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)", Protocol (SDP) and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)",
draft-ietf-mmusic-kmgmt-ext-12 (work in progress), draft-ietf-mmusic-kmgmt-ext-12 (work in progress),
November 2004. November 2004.
[27] Andreasen, F., Baugher, M., and D. Wing, "Session Description [29] Andreasen, F., Baugher, M., and D. Wing, "Session Description
Protocol Security Descriptions for Media Streams", Protocol Security Descriptions for Media Streams",
draft-ietf-mmusic-sdescriptions-07 (work in progress), draft-ietf-mmusic-sdescriptions-07 (work in progress),
July 2004. July 2004.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mark Handley Mark Handley
University College London University College London
Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science
Gower Street Gower Street
skipping to change at page 48, line 41 skipping to change at page 49, line 41
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Copyright Statement Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). This document is subject Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). This document is subject
to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
Acknowledgment Acknowledgment
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society. Internet Society.
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