draft-ietf-avt-uncomp-video-02.txt   draft-ietf-avt-uncomp-video-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force AVT WG Internet Engineering Task Force AVT WG
INTERNET-DRAFT Ladan Gharai INTERNET-DRAFT Ladan Gharai
draft-ietf-avt-uncomp-video-02.txt Colin Perkins draft-ietf-avt-uncomp-video-03.txt USC/ISI
USC/ISI Colin Perkins
27 February 2003 University of Glasgow
Expires: August 2003 Expires: December 2003
RTP Payload Format for Uncompressed Video RTP Payload Format for Uncompressed Video
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
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Abstract Abstract
This memo specifies a packetization scheme for encapsulating This memo specifies a packetization scheme for encapsulating
uncompressed video into a payload format for the Real-time uncompressed video into a payload format for the Real-time
Transport Protocol, RTP. It supports a range of standard- and Transport Protocol, RTP. It supports a range of standard- and
high-definition video formats, including common television high-definition video formats, including common television
formats such as ITU BT.601, SMPTE 274M and SMPTE 296M. The formats such as ITU BT.601, and standards from the Society of
format is designed to be extensible as new video formats are Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), such as SMPTE
developed. 274M and SMPTE 296M. The format is designed to be applicable
and extensible to new video formats as they are developed.
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
[Note to RFC Editor: All references to RFC XXXX are to be replaced with [Note to RFC Editor: All references to RFC XXXX are to be replaced
the RFC number of this memo, when published] with the RFC number of this memo, when published]
This memo defines a scheme to packetize uncompressed, studio-quality, This memo defines a scheme to packetize uncompressed, studio-quality,
video streams for transport using RTP [RTP]. It supports a range of video streams for transport using RTP [RTP]. It supports a range of
standard and high definition video formats, including ITU-R BT.601 standard and high definition video formats, including ITU-R BT.601
[601], SMPTE 274M [274] and SMPTE 296M [296]. [601], SMPTE 274M [274] and SMPTE 296M [296].
Formats for uncompressed standard definition television are defined by Formats for uncompressed standard definition television are defined
ITU Recommendation BT.601 [601] along with bit-serial and parallel by ITU Recommendation BT.601 [601] along with bit-serial and parallel
interfaces in Recommendation BT.656 [656]. These formats allow both 625 interfaces in Recommendation BT.656 [656]. These formats allow both
line and 525 line operation, with 720 samples per digital active line, 625 line and 525 line operation, with 720 samples per digital active
4:2:2 color sub-sampling, and 8- or 10-bit digital representation. line, 4:2:2 color sub-sampling, and 8- or 10-bit digital
representation.
The representation of uncompressed high definition television is The representation of uncompressed high definition television is
specified in SMPTE standards 274M [274] and 296M [296]. SMPTE 274M specified in SMPTE standards 274M [274] and 296M [296]. SMPTE 274M
defines a family of scanning systems with an image format of 1920x1080 defines a family of scanning systems with an image format of
pixels with progressive and interlaced scanning, while SMPTE 296M 1920x1080 pixels with progressive and interlaced scanning, while
standard defines systems with an image size of 1280x720 pixels and only SMPTE 296M defines systems with an image size of 1280x720 pixels and
progressive scanning. In progressive scanning, scan lines are displayed only progressive scanning. In progressive scanning, scan lines are
in sequence from top to bottom of a full frame. In interlaced scanning, displayed in sequence from top to bottom of a full frame. In
a frame is divided into its odd and even scan lines (called fields) and interlaced scanning, a frame is divided into its odd and even scan
the two fields are displayed in succession. lines (called fields) and the two fields are displayed in succession.
SMPTE 274M and 296M define images with aspect ratios of 16:9, and define SMPTE 274M and 296M define images with aspect ratios of 16:9, and
the digital representation for RGB and YCbCr components. In the case of define the digital representation for RGB and YCbCr components. In
YCbCr components, the Cb and Cr components are horizontally sub-sampled the case of YCbCr components, the Cb and Cr components are
by a factor of two (4:2:2 color encoding). horizontally sub-sampled by a factor of two (4:2:2 color encoding).
Although these formats differ in their details, they are structurally Although these formats differ in their details, they are structurally
very similar. This memo specifies a payload format to encapsulate these, very similar. This memo specifies a payload format to encapsulate
and other similar, video formats for transport within RTP. these, and other similar, video formats for transport within RTP.
2. Conventions Used in this Document 2. Conventions Used in this Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119[2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119[2119].
3. Payload Design 3. Payload Design
Each scan line of digital video is packetized into one or more Each scan line of digital video is packetized into one or more RTP
(depending on the network MTU) RTP packets. A single RTP packet MAY also packets. If the data for a complete scan line exceeds the network
contain data for more than one scan line. Only the active samples are MTU, the scan line SHOULD be fragmented into multiple RTP packets,
each smaller than the MTU. A single RTP packet MAY contain data for
included in the RTP payload, inactive samples and the contents of more than one scan line. Only the active samples are included in the
horizontal and vertical blanking SHOULD NOT be transported. Scan line RTP payload: inactive samples and the contents of horizontal and
numbers are included in the RTP payload header, along with a field vertical blanking SHOULD NOT be transported. Scan line numbers are
identifier for interlaced video. included in the RTP payload header, along with a field identifier for
interlaced video.
For SMPTE 296M format video, valid scan line numbers are from 26 For SMPTE 296M format video, valid scan line numbers are from 26
through 745, inclusive. For progressive scan SMPTE 274M format through 745, inclusive. For progressive scan SMPTE 274M format
video, valid scan lines are from scan line 42 through 1121 video, valid scan lines are from scan line 42 through 1121
inclusive. For interlaced scan, valid scan line numbers for field inclusive. For interlaced scan SMPTE 274M format video, valid scan
one (F=0) are from 21 to 560 and valid scan line numbers for the line numbers for field one (F=0) are from 21 to 560 and valid scan
second field (F=1) are from 584 to 1123. For ITU-R BT.601 format line numbers for the second field (F=1) are from 584 to 1123. For
video, the blanking intervals defined in BT.656 are used: for 625 ITU-R BT.601 format video, the blanking intervals defined in BT.656
line video, lines 24 to 310 of field one (F=0) and 337 to 623 of are used: for 625 line video, lines 24 to 310 of field one (F=0)
the second field (F=1) are valid; for 525 line video, lines 21 to and 337 to 623 of the second field (F=1) are valid; for 525 line
263 of the first field, and 284 to 525 of the second field are video, lines 21 to 263 of the first field, and 284 to 525 of the
valid. Other formats (e.g. [372]) may define different ranges of second field are valid. Other formats (e.g. [372]) may define
active lines. different ranges of active lines.
The payload header contains a 16 bit extension to the standard 16 bit The payload header contains a 16 bit extension to the standard 16 bit
RTP sequence number, thereby extending the sequence number to 32 bits RTP sequence number, thereby extending the sequence number to 32 bits
and enabling RTP to accommodate high data rates. This is necessary as and enabling the payload format to accommodate high data rates. This
the 16 bit RTP sequence number will roll-over very quickly for high data is necessary as the 16 bit RTP sequence number will roll-over very
rates. For example, for a 1 Gbps video stream with packet sizes of at quickly for high data rates. For example, for a 1 Gbps video stream
least one thousand octets, the standard RTP packet will roll-over in 0.5 with packet sizes of at least one thousand octets, the standard RTP
seconds, which can be a problem for detecting loss and out of order packet will roll-over in 0.5 seconds, which can be a problem for
packets particularly in instances where the round trip time is greater detecting loss and out of order packets particularly in instances
than half a second. The extended 32 bit number allows for a longer wrap- where the round trip time is greater than half a second. The extended
around time of approximately nine hours. 32 bit number allows for a longer wrap-around time of approximately
nine hours.
It is desirable for the video to be both octet aligned when packetized,
and to adhere to the principles of application level framing [ALF] by
ensuring that the samples relating to a single pixel are not fragmented
across two packets.
Samples may be transfered as 8, 10, 12 or 16 bit values. For 10 bit and Each scan line comprises of an integer number of pixels. Each pixel
12 bit payloads, care must be taken to pack an appropriate number of is represented by a number of samples. Samples may be coded as 8, 10,
samples per packet, such that the payload is also octet aligned. For RGB 12 or 16 bit values. A sample may represent color or luminance
video, it is desirable that the samples corresponding to a single pixel components of the video. Color samples may be shared between
are not fragmented across packets. Similarly, for YCrCb video, it is adjacent pixels. The sharing of color samples between adjacent pixels
desirable that luminance and chrominance values are not fragmented is known as color sub-sampling. This is typically done in the YCbCr
across packets. color space for the purpose of reducing the size of an image.
For example, in YCrCb video with 4:1:1 color subsampling, each group of Pixels that share sample values MUST be transported together as a
4 pixels is represented by 6 values, Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Cr Cb. These should be pixel group. If 10 bit or 12 bit samples are used, each pixel may
packetized such that these values are not fragmented across a packet also comprise a non-integer number of octets. In this case, several
boundary. With 10 bit words this is a 60 bit value which is not octet pixels MUST be combined into an octet aligned pixel group for
transmission. These restrictions simplify the operation of receivers
by ensuring that a complete payload is octet aligned, and that
samples relating to a single pixel are not fragmented across multiple
packets [ALF].
aligned. To be both octet aligned, and appropriately framed, pixels must For example, in YCbCr video with 4:1:1 color sub-sampling, each group
be framed in 2 groups of 4 pixels, thereby becoming octet aligned on a of 4 adjacent pixels comprises 6 samples, Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Cr Cb, with the
15 octet boundary. This length is referred to as the pixel group Cr and Cb values being shared between all 4 pixels. If samples are 8
("pgroup"), and it is conveyed in the SDP parameters. Tables 1 to 4 bit values, the result is a group of 4 pixels comprising 6 octets.
display the pgroup values, in octets, for a range of color samplings and If, however, samples are 10 bit values, the resulting 60 bit group is
word lengths. not octet aligned. To be both octet aligned and appropriately
framed, two groups of 4 adjacent pixels must be collected, thereby
becoming octet aligned on a 15 octet boundary. This length is
referred to as the pixel group size ("pgroup").
When packetizing digital active line content, video data MUST NOT be Formally, the "pgroup" parameter is the size in octets of the
fragmented within a pgroup. smallest grouping of pixels such that 1) the grouping comprises an
integer number of octets; and 2) if color sub-sampling is used,
samples are only shared within the grouping. When packetizing digital
active line content, video data MUST NOT be fragmented within a
pgroup.
Video content is almost always associated with additional information Video content is almost always associated with additional information
such as audio tracks, time code, etc. In professional digital video such as audio tracks, time code, etc. In professional digital video
applications this data is commonly embedded in non-active portions of applications this data is commonly embedded in non-active portions of
the video stream (horizontal and vertical blanking periods) so that the video stream (horizontal and vertical blanking periods) so that
precise and robust synchronization is maintained. This payload format precise and robust synchronization is maintained. This payload format
requires that applications using such synchronized ancillary data MUST requires that applications using such synchronized ancillary data
deliver it in separate RTP sessions which operate concurrently with the MUST deliver it in separate RTP sessions which operate concurrently
video session. The normal RTP mechanisms SHOULD be used to synchronize with the video session. The normal RTP mechanisms SHOULD be used to
the media. synchronize the media.
8 bit words
Color ----------------------------------------
Subsampling Pixels #words octet alignment #samples pgroup
octets
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
|monochrome | 1 |P/I| | 1x8 | 8/8 = 1 | 1 | 1 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:1:1 | 4 |P/I| | 6x8 | 6x8/8 = 6 | 6 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | P | | 6x8 | 6x8/8 = 6 | 6 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | I | | 4x8 | 4x8/8 = 6 | 4 | 4 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:2 | 2 |P/I| | 4x8 | 4x8/8 = 8 | 4 | 4 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 3x8 | 3x8/8 = 3 | 3 | 3 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 4x8 | 4x8/8 = 4 | 4 | 4 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
Table 1: pgroup values for 8 bit sampling
10 bit words
Color ----------------------------------------
Subsampling Pixels #words octet alignment #samples pgroup
octets
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
|monochrome | 4 |P/I| | 4x10 | 40/8 = 5 | 4 | 5 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:1:1 | 4 |P/I| | 6x10 | 2x60/8 = 15 | 12 | 15 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | P | | 6x10 | 2x60/8 = 15 | 12 | 15 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | I | | 4x10 | 40/8 = 5 | 4 | 5 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:2:2 | 2 |P/I| | 4x10 | 40/8 = 5 | 4 | 5 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 3x10 | 4x30/8 = 15 | 12 | 15 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
| 4:4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 4x10 | 40/8 = 5 | 4 | 5 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
Table 2: pgroup values for 10 bit sampling
12 bit words
Color ----------------------------------------
Subsampling Pixels #words octet alignment #samples pgroup
octets
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+---------------+
|monochrome | 2 |P/I| | 2x12 | 2x12/8 = 3 | 2 | 3 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:1:1 | 4 |P/I| | 6x12 | 72/8 = 9 | 6 | 9 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | P | | 6x12 | 72/8 = 9 | 6 | 9 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | I | | 4x12 | 48/8 = 6 | 4 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:2 | 2 |P/I| | 4x12 | 48/8 = 6 | 4 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:4:4 | 2 |P/I| | 6x12 | 2x36/8 = 9 | 6 | 9 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 4x12 | 48/8 = 6 | 4 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
Table 3: pgroup values for 12 bit sampling
16 bit words
Color --------------------------------------
Subsampling Pixels #words octet alignment samples pgroup
octets
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
|monochrome | 1 |P/I| | 1x16 | 16/8 = 2 | 1 | 2 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:1:1 | 4 |P/I| | 6x16 | 6x16/8 = 12 | 6 | 12 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | P | | 6x16 | 6x16/8 = 12 | 6 | 12 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:0 | 4 | I | | 4x16 | 4x16/8 = 8 | 4 | 8 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:2:2 | 2 |P/I| | 4x16 | 4x16/8 = 8 | 4 | 8 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 3x16 | 3x16/8 = 6 | 3 | 6 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
| 4:4:4:4 | 1 |P/I| | 4x16 | 4x16/8 = 8 | 4 | 8 |
+-----------+------+---+ +------+---------------+-------+-------+
Table 4: pgroup values for 16 bit sampling
4. RTP Packetization 4. RTP Packetization
The standard RTP header is followed by a 4 octet payload header that The standard RTP header is followed by a 2 octet payload header that
extends the RTP Sequence Number, and by a 6 octet payload header for extends the RTP Sequence Number, and by a 6 octet payload header for
each line (or partial line) of video included. One or more lines, or each line (or partial line) of video included. One or more lines, or
partial lines, of video data follow. This format makes the payload partial lines, of video data follow. This format makes the payload
header 32 bit aligned in the common case, where one scan line (fragment) header 32 bit aligned in the common case, where one scan line (or
of video is included in each RTP packet. fragment) of video is included in each RTP packet.
For example, if two lines of video are encapsulated, the payload format For example, if two lines of video are encapsulated, the payload
will be as shown in Figure 1. format will be as shown in Figure 1.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| V |P|X| CC |M| PT | Sequence Number | | V |P|X| CC |M| PT | Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Time Stamp | | Time Stamp |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SSRC | | SSRC |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Extended Sequence Number | Length | | Extended Sequence Number | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|F| Scan Line No |C| Scan Offset | |F| Line No |C| Offset |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length |F| Scan Line No | | Length |F| Line No |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|C| Scan Offset | . |C| Offset | .
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ . +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ .
. . . .
. Two (partial) lines of video data . . Two (partial) lines of video data .
. . . .
+---------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 1: RTP Payload Format showing two (partial) lines of video Figure 1: RTP Payload Format showing two (partial) lines of video
4.1. The RTP Header 4.1. The RTP Header
The fields of the fixed RTP header have their usual meaning, with the The fields of the fixed RTP header have their usual meaning, with the
skipping to change at page 8, line 30 skipping to change at page 6, line 30
header, in order avoid problems due to wrap-around when operating header, in order avoid problems due to wrap-around when operating
at high rate rates. at high rate rates.
4.2. Payload Header 4.2. Payload Header
Extended Sequence Number : 16 bits Extended Sequence Number : 16 bits
The high order bits of the extended 32 bit sequence number, in The high order bits of the extended 32 bit sequence number, in
network byte order. network byte order.
Scan Line No : 15 bits Length: 16 bits
Number of octets of data included from this scan line, in network
byte order. This MUST be a multiple of the pgroup value.
Line No : 15 bits
Scan line number of encapsulated data, in network byte order. Scan line number of encapsulated data, in network byte order.
Successive RTP packets MAY contains parts of the same scan line Successive RTP packets MAY contains parts of the same scan line
(with an incremented RTP sequence number, but the same timestamp), (with an incremented RTP sequence number, but the same timestamp),
if it is necessary to fragment a line. if it is necessary to fragment a line.
Scan Offset : 15 bits Offset : 15 bits
Scan offset of the first sample in the payload data. If YCrCb
format data is being transported, this is the offset of the co-
sited luminance sample and if RGB format data is being transported
it is the offset of the red sample. The value is in network byte
order, and the offset has a value of zero if the first sample in
the payload corresponds to the start of the line.
Length: 16 bits
Number of octets of data included from this scan line, in network Offset of the first pixel of the payload data within the scan line.
byte order. This MUST be a multiple of the pgroup value. If YCbCr format data is being transported, this is the pixel offset
of the co-sited luminance sample; if RGB format data is being
transported it is the pixel offset of the red sample. The value is
in network byte order. The offset has a value of zero if the first
sample in the payload corresponds to the start of the line, and
increments by one for each pixel.
Field Identification (F): 1 bit Field Identification (F): 1 bit
Identifies which field the scan line belongs to, for interlaced Identifies which field the scan line belongs to, for interlaced
data. F=0 identifies the the first field and F=1 the second field. data. F=0 identifies the the first field and F=1 the second field.
For progressive scan data (e.g. SMPTE 296M format video), F MUST For progressive scan data (e.g. SMPTE 296M format video), F MUST
always be set to zero. always be set to zero.
Continuation (more lines) bit (C): 1 bit Continuation (C): 1 bit
Determines if an additional scan line header follows the current Determines if an additional scan line header follows the current
scan line header in the RTP packet. Set to 1 if an additional scan line header in the RTP packet. Set to 1 if an additional
header follows, implying that the RTP packet is carrying data for header follows, implying that the RTP packet is carrying data for
more than one scan line. Set to 0 otherwise. An unlimited number more than one scan line. Set to 0 otherwise. An unlimited number
of scan lines MAY be included, up to the path MTU limit. The only of scan lines MAY be included, up to the path MTU limit. The only
way to determine the number of scan lines included per packet is to way to determine the number of scan lines included per packet is to
parse the payload headers. parse the payload headers.
4.3. Payload Data 4.3. Payload Data
Depending on the video format, each RTP packet can include either a Depending on the video format, each RTP packet can include either a
single complete scan line, a single fragment of a scan line, or one (or single complete scan line, a single fragment of a scan line, or one
more) complete scan lines plus a fragment of a scan line. Every scan (or more) complete scan lines and scan line fragments. The length of
line or scan line fragment MUST begin at an octet boundary in the each scan line or scan line fragment MUST be an integer multiple of
payload data. Scan lines SHOULD be fragmented so that the resulting RTP the pgroup size in octets. Scan lines SHOULD be fragmented so that
packet is smaller than the path MTU. the resulting RTP packet is smaller than the path MTU.
It is possible that the scan line length is not evenly divisible by the It is possible that the scan line length is not evenly divisible by
number of pixels in a pgroup, so the final pixel data of a scan line the number of pixels in a pgroup, so the final pixel data of a scan
does not align to either an octet or pgroup boundary. Nonetheless the line does not align to either an octet or pgroup boundary.
payload MUST contain a whole number of pgroups; the sender MUST fill the Nonetheless the payload MUST contain a whole number of pgroups; the
remaining bits of the final pgroup with zero and the receiver MUST sender MUST fill the remaining bits of the final pgroup with zero and
ignore the fill data. (In effect, the trailing edge of the image is the receiver MUST ignore the fill data. (In effect, the trailing edge
black-filled to a pgroup boundary.) of the image is black-filled to a pgroup boundary.)
If the video is in YUV format, the packing of samples into the payload For RGB format video, samples are packed in order Red-Green-Blue. For
depends on the color sub-sampling used. For RGB format video, there is a BGR format video, samples are packed in order Blue-Green-Red. For
single packing scheme. both formats, if 8 bit samples are used, the pgroup is 3 octets. If
10 bit samples are used, samples from 4 adjacent pixels form 15 octet
pgroups. If 12 bit samples are used, samples from 2 adjacent pixels
form 9 octet pgroups. If 16 bits samples are used, each pixel forms a
separate 6 octet pgroup.
For RGB format video, samples are packed in order Red-Green-Blue. All For RGBA format video, samples are packed in order Red-Green-Blue-
samples are the same bit size, which may be 8, 10, 12, or 16 bits. If 8 Alpha. For 8, 10, 12, or 16 bit samples, each pixel forms its own
bit samples are used, the pgroup is 3 octets. If 10 bit samples are pgroup, with octet sizes of 4, 5, 6 and 8 respectively.
used, samples from adjacent pixels are packed with no padding, and the
pgroup is 15 octets (4 pixels). Refer to Tables 1 thru 4.
For RGBA format video, samples are packed in order Red-Green-Blue-Alpha. If the video is in YCbCr format, the packing of samples into the
All samples are the same bit size, which may be 8, 10, 12, or 16 bits. payload depends on the color sub-sampling used.
For pgroups refer to Tables 1 thru 4.
For YUV 4:4:4 format video, samples are packed in order Cb-Y-Cr for both For YCbCr 4:4:4 format video, samples are packed in order Cb-Y-Cr for
interlaced and progressive frames. Each sample is either an 8, 10, 12 or both interlaced and progressive frames. If 8 bit samples are used,
16 bit value. For relevant pgroups refer to Tables 1 to 4. the pgroup is 3 octets. If 10 bit samples are used, samples from 4
adjacent pixels form 15 octet pgroups. If 12 bit samples are used,
samples from 2 adjacent pixels form 9 octet pgroups. If 16 bits
samples are used, each pixel forms a separate 6 octet pgroup.
For YUV 4:2:2 format video, the Cb and Cr components are horizontally For YCbCr 4:2:2 format video, the Cb and Cr components are
sub-sampled by a factor of two (each Cb and Cr samples corresponds to horizontally sub-sampled by a factor of two (each Cb and Cr sample
two Y components). Samples are packed in order Cb0-Y0-Cr0-Y1 for both corresponds to two Y components). Samples are packed in order
interlaced and progressive scan lines. Samples are either an 8, 10, 12 Cb0-Y0-Cr0-Y1 for both interlaced and progressive scan lines. For 8,
or 16 bit value. For relevant pgroups refer to Tables 1 to 4. 10, 12 or 16 bit samples, the pgroup is formed from two adjacent
pixels (4, 5, 6 or 8 octets respectively).
For YUV 4:1:1 format video, the Cb and Cr components are horizontally For YCbCr 4:1:1 format video, the Cb and Cr components are
sub-sampled by a factor of four (each Cb and Cr sample corresponds to horizontally sub-sampled by a factor of four (each Cb and Cr sample
four Y components). Samples are packed in order Cb0-Y0-Y1-Cr0-Y2-Y3 for corresponds to four Y components). Samples are packed in order
both interlaced and progressive scan lines. Samples are either an 8, 10, Cb0-Y0-Y1-Cr0-Y2-Y3 for both interlaced and progressive scan lines.
12 or 16 bit value. For relevant pgroups refer to Tables 1 to 4. For 8, 10, 12 or 16 bit samples, the pgroup is formed from four
adjacent pixels (6, 15, 9 or 12 octets respectively).
For YUV 4:2:0 video, the Cb and Cr components are sub-sampled by a For YCbCr 4:2:0 video, the Cb and Cr components are sub-sampled by a
factor of two both horizontally and vertically. Therefore chrominance factor of two both horizontally and vertically. Therefore chrominance
values are shared between certain adjacent lines. Figure 2 illustrates samples are shared between certain adjacent lines. Figure 2 shows
the composition of luminance and chrominance values for 6x6 pixel grid the composition of luminance and chrominance samples for a 6x6 pixel
in 4:2:0 YUV video. grid of 4:2:0 YCbCr video. The pixel group is a group of four pixels
arranged in a 2x2 matrix. The octet size of the pgroup for
progressive scan 4:2:0 video with samples sizes of 8, 10, 12 and 16
bits is 6, 5, 9 and 12 octets respectively. For interlaced 4:2:0
video the corresponding pgroups are 4, 5, 6 and 8 octets.
line 0: Y00 Y01 Y02 Y03 Y04 Y05 line 0: Y00 Y01 Y02 Y03 Y04 Y05
Cb00 Cr00 Cb01 Cr01 Cb02 Cr02 Cb00 Cr00 Cb01 Cr01 Cb02 Cr02
line 1: Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15 line 1: Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15
line 2: Y20 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y25 line 2: Y20 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y25
Cb10 Cr10 Cb11 Cr11 Cb12 Cr12 Cb10 Cr10 Cb11 Cr11 Cb12 Cr12
line 3: Y30 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 Y35 line 3: Y30 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 Y35
line 4: Y40 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 Y45 line 4: Y40 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 Y45
Cb20 Cr20 Cb21 Cr21 Cb22 Cr22 Cb20 Cr20 Cb21 Cr21 Cb22 Cr22
line 5: Y50 Y51 Y52 Y53 Y54 Y55 line 5: Y50 Y51 Y52 Y53 Y54 Y55
Figure 2: Chrominance and luminance compostion in 4:2:0 YUV video. Figure 2: Chrominance/luminance composition in 4:2:0 YCbCr video
When packetizing progressive scan 4:2:0 YCbCr video, samples from two
Transport of progressive scan 4:2:0 YUV video entails the transport of consecutive scan lines are included in each packet. The scan line
two scan lines together such that: number in the payload header is set to that of the first scan line of
the pair:
line 0,1: line 0/1:
Y00-Y01-Y10-Y11-Cb00-Cr00 Y02-Y03-Y12-Y13-Cb01-Cr01 Y00-Y01-Y10-Y11-Cb00-Cr00 Y02-Y03-Y12-Y13-Cb01-Cr01
Y04-Y05-Y14-Y15-Cb02-Cr02 Y04-Y05-Y14-Y15-Cb02-Cr02
line 2,3: line 2/3:
Y20-Y21-Y30-Y31-Cb10-Cr10 Y22-Y23-Y32-Y33-Cb11-Cr11 Y20-Y21-Y30-Y31-Cb10-Cr10 Y22-Y23-Y32-Y33-Cb11-Cr11
Y24-Y25-Y34-Y35-Cb12-Cr12 Y24-Y25-Y34-Y35-Cb12-Cr12
line 4,5: line 4/5:
Y40-Y41-Y50-Y51-Cb20-Cr20 Y42-Y43-Y52-Y53-Cb21-Cr21 Y40-Y41-Y50-Y51-Cb20-Cr20 Y42-Y43-Y52-Y53-Cb21-Cr21
Y44-Y45-Y54-Y55-Cb22-Cr22 Y44-Y45-Y54-Y55-Cb22-Cr22
For interlaced transportm chrominance values are transported with every For interlaced transport chrominance samples are transported with
other line: every other line:
field 0: field 0:
line 0: Y00-Y01-Cb00-Cr00 Y02-Y03-Cb01-Cr01 Y04-Y05-Cb02-Cr02 line 0: Y00-Y01-Cb00-Cr00 Y02-Y03-Cb01-Cr01 Y04-Y05-Cb02-Cr02
line 2: Y20-Y21 Y22-Y23 Y24-Y25 line 2: Y20-Y21 Y22-Y23 Y24-Y25
line 4: Y40-Y41-Cb20-Cr20 Y42-Y43-Cb21-Cr21 Y44-Y45-Cb22-Cr22 line 4: Y40-Y41-Cb20-Cr20 Y42-Y43-Cb21-Cr21 Y44-Y45-Cb22-Cr22
field 1: field 1:
line 1: Y10-Y11 Y12-Y13 Y14-Y15 line 1: Y10-Y11 Y12-Y13 Y14-Y15
line 3: Y30-Y31-Cb10-Cr10 Y32-Y33-Cb11 Cr11 Y34-Y35-Cb12-Cr12 line 3: Y30-Y31-Cb10-Cr10 Y32-Y33-Cb11 Cr11 Y34-Y35-Cb12-Cr12
line 5: Y50-Y51 Y52-Y53 Y54-Y55 line 5: Y50-Y51 Y52-Y53 Y54-Y55
5. RTCP Considerations 5. RTCP Considerations
RTCP SHOULD be used as specified in RFC1889 [RTP], which specifies two RTCP SHOULD be used as specified in RFC1889 [RTP], which specifies
limits on the RTCP packet rate: RTCP bandwidth should be limited to 5% two limits on the RTCP packet rate: RTCP bandwidth should be limited
of the data rate, and the minimum for the average of the randomized to 5% of the data rate, and the minimum for the average of the
intervals between RTCP packets should be 5 seconds. Considering the randomized intervals between RTCP packets should be 5 seconds.
high data rate of many uncompressed video formats, the minimum interval Considering the high data rate of many uncompressed video formats,
is the governing factor in many cases. the minimum interval is the governing factor in many cases.
It should be noted that the sender's octet count in SR packets and the It should be noted that the sender's octet count in SR packets and
cumulative number of packets lost will wrap around quickly for high the cumulative number of packets lost will wrap around quickly for
data rate streams. This means these two fields may not accurately high data rate streams. This means these two fields may not
represent octet count and number of packets lost since the beginning of accurately represent octet count and number of packets lost since the
transmission, as defined in RFC 1889. Therefore for network monitoring beginning of transmission, as defined in RFC 1889. Therefore for
purposes other means of keeping track of these variables SHOULD be used. network monitoring purposes other means of keeping track of these
variables SHOULD be used.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
6.1. MIME type registration 6.1. MIME type registration
MIME media type name: video MIME media type name: video
MIME subtype name: raw MIME subtype name: raw
Required parameters: Required parameters:
rate: The RTP timestamp clock rate. Applications using this payload rate: The RTP timestamp clock rate. Applications using this payload
format MUST be 90000 for this format. format MUST use a value of 90000.
pgroup: The number of octets per the pixel group. See section 3 of
RFC XXXX.
color-mode: Determines the color mode of the video stream. Valid color-mode: Determines the color mode of the video stream.
values for this parameter are: RGB, RGBA, and YUV. Currently defined values are: RGB, RGBA, and YCbCr. New values may
be registered as described in section 6.2 of RFC XXXX.
sub-sampling: Determines the type of color sub-sampling of the sub-sampling: Determines the type of color sub-sampling of the
video stream. Valid values are: mono, 4:1:1, 4:2:0, 4:2:2, 4:4:4 video stream. Currently defined values are: mono, 4:1:1, 4:2:0,
and 4:4:4:4. 4:2:2, and 4:4:4. New values may be registered as described in
section 6.2 of RFC XXXX.
width: Determines the number of pixels per line. This is an integer width: Determines the number of pixels per line. This is an integer
between 1 and 32767. between 1 and 32767.
height: Determines the number of lines per frame. This is an height: Determines the number of lines per frame. This is an
integer between 1 and 32767. integer between 1 and 32767.
depth: Determines the number of bits per samples. This is a decimal depth: Determines the number of bits per samples. This is an
integer; typical values include 8, 10, 12, and 16. integer with typical values including 8, 10, 12, and 16.
colorimetry: This parameter defines the set of colorimetric colorimetry: This parameter defines the set of colorimetric
specfications and other transfer characteristics for the video specifications and other transfer characteristics for the video
source, by reference to an external specification. Valid values and source, by reference to an external specification. Valid values and
their specification are: their specification are:
BT601-5 ITU Recommendation BT.601-5 [601] BT601-5 ITU Recommendation BT.601-5 [601]
BT709-2 ITU Recommendation BT.709-2 [709] BT709-2 ITU Recommendation BT.709-2 [709]
SMPTE240M SMPTE standard 240M [240M] SMPTE240M SMPTE standard 240M [240]
NTSC The NTSC specification [NTSC]
PAL The PAL specificaiton [PAL]
New values may be registered as described in section 6.2 of RFC New values may be registered as described in section 6.2 of RFC
XXXX. XXXX.
Optional parameters: Optional parameters:
Interlace: If this optional parameter is present it indicates that Interlace: If this OPTIONAL parameter is present, it indicates that
the video stream is interlaced. If absent, progressive scan is the video stream is interlaced. If absent, progressive scan is
implied. implied.
Encoding considerations: Uncompressed video can be transmitted with RTP Encoding considerations:
as specified in RFC XXXX. No file format is defined at this time.
Uncompressed video can be transmitted with RTP as specified in RFC
XXXX. No file format is defined at this time.
Security considerations: See section 9 of RFC XXXX. Security considerations: See section 9 of RFC XXXX.
Interoperability considerations: NONE. Interoperability considerations: NONE.
Published specification: RFC XXXX. Published specification: RFC XXXX.
Applications which use this media type: Video communication. Applications which use this media type: Video communication.
Additional information: None Additional information: None
skipping to change at page 13, line 39 skipping to change at page 11, line 43
Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu> Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu>
IETF Audio/Video Transport working group. IETF Audio/Video Transport working group.
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Author/Change controller: Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu> Author/Change controller: Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu>
6.2. Parameter Registration 6.2. Parameter Registration
New values of the "sampling" parameter MAY be registered with the
IANA provided they reference an RFC or other permanent and readily
available specification (the Specification Required policy of RFC
2434 [2434]). A new registration MUST define the packing order of
samples and a valid combinations of color and sub-sampling modes.
New values of the "colorimetry" parameter MAY be registered with the New values of the "colorimetry" parameter MAY be registered with the
IANA provided they reference an RFC or other permanent and readily IANA provided they reference an RFC or other permanent and readily
available specification (the Specification Required policy of RFC 2434 available specification if colorimetric parameters and other
[2434]). applicable transfer characteristics (the Specification Required
policy of RFC 2434 [2434]).
7. Mapping to SDP Parameters 7. Mapping to SDP Parameters
Parameters are mapped to SDP [SDP] as in the following example: Parameters are mapped to SDP [SDP] as in the following example:
m=video 30000 RTP/AVP 112 m=video 30000 RTP/AVP 112
a=rtpmap:112 raw/90000 a=rtpmap:112 raw/90000
a=fmtp:112 color-mode=YUV; sub-sampling=4:2:2; width=1280; height=720; a=fmtp:112 sampling=YUV-4:2:2; width=1280; height=720; depth=10;
depth=10; colorimetry=BT.709-2 colorimetry=BT.709-2
In this example, a dynamic payload type 111 is used for uncompressed In this example, a dynamic payload type 112 is used for uncompressed
video. The RTP sampling clock is 90kHz. Note that the "a=fmtp:" line video. The RTP sampling clock is 90kHz. Note that the "a=fmtp:" line
has been wrapped to fit this page, and will be a single long line in the has been wrapped to fit this page, and will be a single long line in
SDP file. the SDP file.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification are RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
specification, and any appropriate RTP profile. This implies that specification, and any appropriate RTP profile. This implies that
confidentiality of the media streams is achieved by encryption. confidentiality of the media streams is achieved by encryption.
This payload type does not exhibit any significant non-uniformity in the This payload type does not exhibit any significant non-uniformity in
receiver side computational complexity for packet processing to cause a the receiver side computational complexity for packet processing to
potential denial-of-service threat. cause a potential denial-of-service threat.
It is important to be note that uncompressed video can have immense It is important to be note that uncompressed video can have immense
bandwidth requirements (up 270 Mbps for standard definition video, and bandwidth requirements (up 270 Mbps for standard definition video,
approximately 1 Gbps for high definition video). This is sufficient to and approximately 1 Gbps for high definition video). This is
cause potential for denial-of-service if transmitted onto most currently sufficient to cause potential for denial-of-service if transmitted
available Internet paths. onto most currently available Internet paths.
Accordingly, if best-effort service is being used, users of this payload Accordingly, if best-effort service is being used, users of this
format SHOULD monitor packet loss to ensure that the packet loss rate is payload format SHOULD monitor packet loss to ensure that the packet
within acceptable parameters. Packet loss is considered acceptable if a loss rate is within acceptable parameters. Packet loss is considered
TCP flow across the same network path, and experiencing the same network acceptable if a TCP flow across the same network path, and
conditions, would achieve an average throughput, measured on a experiencing the same network conditions, would achieve an average
reasonable timescale, that is not less than the RTP flow is achieving. throughput, measured on a reasonable timescale, that is not less than
This condition can be satisfied by implementing congestion control the RTP flow is achieving. This condition can be satisfied by
mechanisms to adapt the transmission rate (or the number of layers implementing congestion control mechanisms to adapt the transmission
subscribed for a layered multicast session), or by arranging for a rate (or the number of layers subscribed for a layered multicast
receiver to leave the session if the loss rate is unacceptably high. session), or by arranging for a receiver to leave the session if the
loss rate is unacceptably high.
This payload format may also be used in networks which provide quality This payload format may also be used in networks which provide
of service guarantees. If enhanced service is being used, receivers quality of service guarantees. If enhanced service is being used,
SHOULD monitor packet loss to ensure that the service that was requested receivers SHOULD monitor packet loss to ensure that the service that
is actually being delivered. If it is not, then they SHOULD assume that was requested is actually being delivered. If it is not, then they
they are receiving best-effort service and behave accordingly. SHOULD assume that they are receiving best-effort service and behave
accordingly.
9. Relation to RFC 2431 9. Relation to RFC 2431
In comparison with RFC 2431 this memo specifies support for a wider In comparison with RFC 2431 this memo specifies support for a wider
variety of uncompressed video, in terms of frame size, color subsampling variety of uncompressed video, in terms of frame size, color sub-
and sample sizes. While [BT656] can transport up to 4096 scan lines and sampling and sample sizes. While [BT656] can transport up to 4096
2048 pixels per line, our payload type can support up to 64k scan lines scan lines and 2048 pixels per line, our payload type can support up
and pixels per line. Also, RFC 2431 only address 4:2:2 YUV data, while to 64k scan lines and pixels per line. Also, RFC 2431 only address
this memo covers YUV and RGB and most common color subsampling schemes. 4:2:2 YCbCr data, while this memo covers YCbCr and RGB and most
Given the variety of video types that we cover, this memo also assumes common color sub-sampling schemes. Given the variety of video types
out-of-band signaling for sample size and data types (RFC 2431 uses in that we cover, this memo also assumes out-of-band signaling for
band signaling). sample size and data types (RFC 2431 uses in band signaling).
10. Relation to RFC YYYY 10. Relation to RFC 3497
(tbd) RFC 3497 [292RTP] specifies a RTP payload format for encapsulating
SMPTE 292M video. The SMPTE 292M standard defines a bit-serial
digital interface for local area High Definition Television (HDTV)
transport. As a transport medium, SMPTE 292M utilizes 10 bit words
and a fixed 1.485Gbps (and 1.485/1.001Gbps) data rate. SMPTE 292M is
typically used in the broadcast industry for the transport of other
video formats such as SMPTE 260M, SMPTE 295M, SMPTE 274M and SMPTE
296M.
Relation [292RTP] RFC 3497 defines a circuit emulation for the transport of SMPTE 292M
over RTP. It is very specific to SMPTE 292 and has been designed to
be interoperable with existing broadcast equipment with a constant
rate of 1.485Gbps.
RFC XXXX, defines a flexible native packetization scheme which can
packetize any uncompressed video, at varying data rates. In addition,
unlike RFC 3497, RFC XXXX only transports active video pixels (i.e.
horizontal and vertical blanking are not transported).
11. Full Copyright Statement 11. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
on all such copies and derivative works. included on all such copies and derivative works.
However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as
removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet
other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
or as required to translate it into languages other than English. followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE." MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE."
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to Philippe Gentric and Chuck Harrison for The authors are grateful to Philippe Gentric and Chuck Harrison for
their feedback. their feedback.
13. Authors' Addresses 13. Authors' Addresses
Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu> Ladan Gharai <ladan@isi.edu>
Colin Perkins <csp@csperkins.org>
USC Information Sciences Institute USC Information Sciences Institute
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, #200 3811 N. Fairfax Drive, #200
Arlington, VA 22203 Arlington, VA 22203
USA USA
Colin Perkins <csp@csperkins.org>
University of Glasgow
Department of Computing Science
17 Lilybank Gardens
Glasgow G12 8QQ
United Kingdom
Normative References Normative References
[RTP] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick and V. Jacobson, [RTP] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick and V. Jacobson,
"RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications",
Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 1889, January 1996. Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 1889, January 1996.
[2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Levels", RFC 2119. Requirement Levels", RFC 2119.
[2434] T. Narten and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA [2434] T. Narten and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434, October 1998. Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434, October 1998.
Informative References Informative References
[274] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, [274] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
1920x1080 Scanning and Analog and Parallel Digital Interfaces "1920x1080 Scanning and Analog and Parallel Digital
for Multiple Picture Rates, SMPTE 274M-1998. Interfaces
for Multiple Picture Rates", SMPTE 274M-1998.
[268] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, [268] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
File Format for Digital Moving Picture Exchange (DPX), "File Format for Digital Moving Picture Exchange (DPX)",
SMPTE 268M-1994. (Currently under revision.) SMPTE 268M-1994. (Currently under revision.)
[296] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, [296] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
1280x720 Scanning, Analog and Digital Representation and Analog "1280x720 Scanning, Analog and Digital Representation and
Interfaces, SMPTE 296M-1998. Analog Interfaces", SMPTE 296M-1998.
[372] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, [372] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
Dual Link 292M Interface for 1920 x 1080 Picture Raster, "Dual Link 292M Interface for 1920 x 1080 Picture Raster",
SMPTE 372M-2002. SMPTE 372M-2002.
[ALF] Clark, D. D., and Tennenhouse, D. L., "Architectural [ALF] Clark, D. D., and Tennenhouse, D. L., "Architectural
Considerations for a New Generation of Protocols", In Considerations for a New Generation of Protocols", In
Proceedings of SIGCOMM '90 (Philadelphia, PA, Sept. 1990), ACM. Proceedings of SIGCOMM '90 (Philadelphia, PA, Sept. 1990),
ACM.
[SDP] M. Handley and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", [SDP] M. Handley and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
RFC 2327, April 1998. Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.
[BT656] D. Tynan, "RTP Payload Format for BT.656 Video Encoding", [BT656] D. Tynan, "RTP Payload Format for BT.656 Video Encoding",
Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 2431, October 1998. Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 2431, October 1998.
[292RTP] L. Gharai et al., "RTP Payload Format for SMPTE 292M Video", [292RTP] L. Gharai et al., "RTP Payload Format for SMPTE 292M Video",
Internet Draft, draft-ietf-avt-smpte292-video-07.txt, RFC 3497, March 2003.
Work in progress.
[601] International Telecommunication Union, "Studio encoding [601] International Telecommunication Union, "Studio encoding
parameters of digital television for standard 4:3 and wide parameters of digital television for standard 4:3 and wide
screen 16:9 aspect ratios", Recommendation BT.601, October 1995. screen 16:9 aspect ratios", Recommendation BT.601, October
1995.
[656] International Telecommunication Union, "Interfaces for Digital [656] International Telecommunication Union, "Interfaces for
Component Video Signals in 525-line and 625-line Television Digital Component Video Signals in 525-line and 625-line
Systems Operating at the 4:2:2 Level of Recommendation ITU-R Television Systems Operating at the 4:2:2 Level of
BT.601 (Part A)", Recommendation BT.656, April 1998. Recommendation ITU-R BT.601 (Part A)", Recommendation
BT.656, April 1998.
[22028] ISO TC42 (Photography), Photography and graphic technology - [22028] ISO TC42 (Photography), Photography and graphic technology -
Extended colour encodings for digital image storage, Extended colour encodings for digital image storage,
manipulation and interchange - Part 1: Architecture and manipulation and interchange - Part 1: Architecture and
requirements, ISO/CD 22028-1, Work in Progress. requirements, ISO/CD 22028-1, Work in Progress.
[709] ITU Recommendation BT.709-2 [709] International Telecommunication Union, "Parameter Values for
HDTV Standards for Production and International Programme
[240M] SMPTE Standard 240M Exchange", Recommendation BT.709-2
[NTSC] (tbd)
[PAL] (tbd) [240] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
"Television - Signal Parameters - 1125-Line High-Definition
Production", SMPTE 240M-1999.
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