draft-iab-covid19-workshop-01.txt   draft-iab-covid19-workshop-02.txt 
Network Working Group J. Arkko Network Working Group J. Arkko
Internet-Draft Ericsson Internet-Draft Ericsson
Intended status: Informational S. Farrell Intended status: Informational S. Farrell
Expires: 26 August 2021 Trinity College Dublin Expires: 6 November 2021 Trinity College Dublin
M. K├╝hlewind M. K├╝hlewind
Ericsson Ericsson
C. Perkins C. Perkins
University of Glasgow University of Glasgow
22 February 2021 5 May 2021
Report from the IAB COVID-19 Network Impacts Workshop 2020 Report from the IAB COVID-19 Network Impacts Workshop 2020
draft-iab-covid19-workshop-01 draft-iab-covid19-workshop-02
Abstract Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic caused changes in Internet user behavior, The COVID-19 pandemic caused changes in Internet user behavior,
particularly during the introduction of the initial quarantine and particularly during the introduction of the initial quarantine and
work-from-home arrangements. These behavior changes drove changes in work-from-home arrangements. These behavior changes drove changes in
Internet traffic. Internet traffic.
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss
network impacts of the pandemic on November 9-13, 2020. The workshop network impacts of the pandemic on November 9-13, 2020. The workshop
skipping to change at page 2, line 10 skipping to change at page 2, line 10
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 26 August 2021. This Internet-Draft will expire on 6 November 2021.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Workshop Topics and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Workshop Topics and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic 3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic
Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.2. Changes in Application Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.2. Changes in Application Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.5. Cloud Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.5. Cloud Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.6. Last-Mile Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.6. Last-Mile Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.7. User Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.7. User Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations . 11 3.2. Operational Practices and Architectural Considerations . 11
3.2.1. Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.1. Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.3. Observability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.3. Observability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.4. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.4. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.5. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.5. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Feedback on Meeting Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Feedback on Meeting Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5. Position Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5. Position Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Workshop participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Workshop participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss
network impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, on November 9-13, 2020. network impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, on November 9-13, 2020.
The workshop was held to convene interested researchers, network The workshop was held to convene interested researchers, network
operators, network management experts, and Internet technologists to operators, network management experts, and Internet technologists to
share their experiences. The meeting was held online given the on- share their experiences. The meeting was held online given the on-
going travel and contact restrictions at that time. going travel and contact restrictions at that time.
COVID-19 has caused changes in user behavior, which in turn drove COVID-19 has caused changes in user behavior, which in turn drove
change to Internet traffic. These changes appeared rather abruptly change to Internet traffic. These changes in user behavior appeared
and were significant, in particular during the introduction of the rather abruptly and were significant, in particular during the
initial quarantine and work-from-home arrangements. The changes introduction of the initial quarantine and work-from-home
relate to traffic volumes, location of traffic, as well as the types arrangements. This caused changes to Internet traffic in terms of
of traffic and applications used. volumes, location, as well as shifts in the type of applications
used. This shift in traffic as well as user behavior created also a
shift in security partices as well as attack patterns that made use
of the attack surface resulting from the shift to home-working in a
global crisis.
Announcement for the workshop was sent out in July 2020, requesting Announcement for the workshop was sent out in July 2020, requesting
interested parties to submit position papers for the workshop program interested parties to submit position papers for the workshop program
committee. A total of 15 position papers were received from committee. A total of 15 position papers were received from
altogether 33 authors. The papers are listed in Section 5. In altogether 33 authors. The papers are listed in Section 5. In
addition, several other types of contributions and pointers to addition, several other types of contributions and pointers to
existing work were provided. A number of position papers referred to existing work were provided. A number of position papers referred to
parallel work being published in measurement-related academic parallel work being published in measurement-related academic
conferences. conferences.
Invitations for the workshop were sent out based on the position Invitations for the workshop were sent out based on the position
papers and other expressions of interest. On the workshop conference papers and other expressions of interest. On the workshop conference
calls were 45 participants, listed in Section 6. calls were 45 participants, listed in Section 6.
The workshop was held over one week hosting three sessions covering The workshop was held over one week hosting three sessions covering
i) measurements and observations, ii) operational issue, and iii) i) measurements and observations, ii) operational and security
future consideration and conclusions. As these three sessions were issues, and iii) future consideration and conclusions. As these
scheduled Monday, Wednesday, and Friday a positive side effect was three sessions were scheduled Monday, Wednesday, and Friday a
that the time in between could be used for mailing list discussion positive side effect was that the time in between could be used for
and compilation of additional workshop material. mailing list discussion and compilation of additional workshop
material.
2. Scope 2. Scope
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact on people's lives The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact on people's lives
and the societies and economies around the globe. But it also had a and the societies and economies around the globe. But it also had a
big impact on networking. With large numbers of people working from big impact on networking. With large numbers of people working from
home or otherwise depending on the network for their daily lives, home or otherwise depending on the network for their daily lives,
network traffic volume has surged. Internet service providers and network traffic volume has surged. Internet service providers and
operators have reported a 20% traffic growth or more in a matter of operators have reported a 20% traffic growth or more in a matter of
weeks. Traffic at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) is similarly on weeks. Traffic at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) is similarly on
the rise. Most forms of network traffic have seen an increase, with the rise. Most forms of network traffic have seen an increase, with
conversational multimedia traffic growing in some cases more than conversational multimedia traffic growing in some cases more than
200%. And user time spent on conferencing services has risen by an 200%. And user time spent on conferencing services has risen by an
order of magnitude on some conferencing platforms. order of magnitude on some conferencing platforms.
In general, the Internet has coped relatively well with this traffic In general, the Internet has coped relatively well with this traffic
growth, albeit not without some issues. For instance, some outages, growth. The situation is not perfect: there has also been some
video quality reduction, and other issues were reported. outages, video quality reduction, and other issues. Nevertheless, it
Nevertheless, it is interesting to see how the technology, operators is interesting to see how the technology, operators and service
and service providers have been able to respond to large and sudden providers have been able to respond to large changes in traffic
changes in traffic patterns. patterns.
Understanding what actually happened with Internet traffic is of Understanding what actually happened with Internet traffic is of
course interesting by its own right. How that impacted user course interesting by its own right. How that impacted user
experience or the intended function of the services is equally experience or the intended function of the services is equally
interesting. Measurements and reports of the traffic situation from interesting. Measurements of and reports on Internet traffic in 2020
2020 are therefore valuable. But it would also be interesting to are therefore valuable. But it would also be interesting to
understand what types of network management and capacity expansion understand what types of network management and capacity expansion
actions were taken in general. Anecdotal evidence points to Internet actions were taken in general. Anecdotal evidence points to Internet
and service providers tracking how their services are used, and in and service providers tracking how their services are used, and in
many cases adjusting services to accommodate the new traffic many cases adjusting services to accommodate the new traffic
patterns, from dynamic allocation of compute resources to more patterns, from dynamic allocation of compute resources to more
complex changes. complex changes.
The impacts of this crisis are also a potential opportunity to The impacts of this crisis are also a potential opportunity to
understand the impact of traffic shifts and growth more generally, or understand the impact of traffic shifts and growth more generally, or
to prepare for future situations -- crises or otherwise - that impact to prepare for future situations -- crises or otherwise - that impact
networking. Or even allow us to adjust the technology to be even networking. Or even allow us to adjust the technology to be even
better suited to respond to changes. better suited to respond to changes.
The scope of this workshop included: The scope of this workshop, based on the call for contributions,
included:
* measurements about traffic changes, user experience, service * measurements about traffic changes, user experience and problems,
performance, and other relevant aspects service performance, and other relevant aspects
* discussion about the behind the scenes network management and * discussion about the behind the scenes network management and
expansion activities expansion activities
* experiences in the fields of general Internet connectivity, * experiences in the fields of general Internet connectivity,
conferencing, media/entertainment, and Internet infrastructure conferencing, media/entertainment, and Internet infrastructure
* lessons learned for preparedness and operations * lessons learned for preparedness and operations
* lessons learned for Internet technology and architecture * lessons learned for Internet technology and architecture
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Measurements of interconnection links at major US ISPs by CAIDA and Measurements of interconnection links at major US ISPs by CAIDA and
MIT found some evidence of diurnal congestion around the March 2020 MIT found some evidence of diurnal congestion around the March 2020
timeframe [Clark2020], but most of this congestion disappeared in a timeframe [Clark2020], but most of this congestion disappeared in a
few weeks, which suggests that operators indeed took steps to add few weeks, which suggests that operators indeed took steps to add
capacity or otherwise mitigate the congestion. capacity or otherwise mitigate the congestion.
3.1.5. Cloud Platforms 3.1.5. Cloud Platforms
Cloud infrastructure played a key role in supporting bandwidth- Cloud infrastructure played a key role in supporting bandwidth-
intensive video conferencing and remote learning tools to practice intensive video conferencing and remote learning tools to practise
social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Network congestion social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Network congestion
between cloud platforms and access networks could impact the quality between cloud platforms and access networks could impact the quality
of experience of these cloud-based applications. CAIDA leveraged of experience of these cloud-based applications. CAIDA leveraged
web-based speed test servers to perform download and upload web-based speed test servers to perform download and upload
throughput measurements from virtual machines in public cloud throughput measurements from virtual machines in public cloud
platforms to various access ISPs in the United States [Mok2020]. platforms to various access ISPs in the United States [Mok2020].
The key findings included: The key findings included:
* Persistent congestion events were not widely observed between * Persistent congestion events were not widely observed between
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applications. applications.
Some of the behaviours are likely permanent changes Some of the behaviours are likely permanent changes
[ConsumerlabReport2020]. The adoption of video calls and other new [ConsumerlabReport2020]. The adoption of video calls and other new
services by many consumers, such as the older generation, is likely services by many consumers, such as the older generation, is likely
going to have a long-lasting effect. Surveys in various going to have a long-lasting effect. Surveys in various
organizations point to a likely long-term increase in the number of organizations point to a likely long-term increase in the number of
people interested in remote work [WorkplaceAnalytics2020] people interested in remote work [WorkplaceAnalytics2020]
[McKinsey2020]. [McKinsey2020].
3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations 3.2. Operational Practices and Architectural Considerations
The second and third day of the workshop were held based on more open The second and third day of the workshop were held based on more open
discussions focussed on operational issues and the architectural discussions focussed on operational issues and the architectural
issues arising or other conclusions that could be reached. issues arising or other conclusions that could be reached.
3.2.1. Digital Divide 3.2.1. Digital Divide
Measurements from Fastly confirmed that Internet traffic volume, in Measurements from Fastly confirmed that Internet traffic volume, in
multiple countries, rose rapidly at the same time as COVID cases multiple countries, rose rapidly at the same time as COVID cases
increased and lockdown policies came into effect. Download speeds increased and lockdown policies came into effect. Download speeds
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for pre-emptive operational changes, in some cases. for pre-emptive operational changes, in some cases.
Measurements from the US showed that download rates correlate with Measurements from the US showed that download rates correlate with
income levels. However, download rates in the lowest income zip income levels. However, download rates in the lowest income zip
codes increased as the pandemic progressed, closing the divide with codes increased as the pandemic progressed, closing the divide with
higher income areas. One possible reason for this in the data is higher income areas. One possible reason for this in the data is
decisions by some ISPs, such as Comcast and Cox, that increased decisions by some ISPs, such as Comcast and Cox, that increased
speeds for users on lower-cost certain plans and in certain areas. speeds for users on lower-cost certain plans and in certain areas.
This suggests that network capacity was available, and that the This suggests that network capacity was available, and that the
correlation between income and download rates was not necessarily due correlation between income and download rates was not necessarily due
to differences in the deployed infrastructure in different regions, to differences in the deployed infrastructure in different regions;
although it was noted that certainly access link technologies provide although it was noted that certain access link technologies provide
more flexibility than others in this regard. more flexibility than others in this regard.
3.2.2. Applications 3.2.2. Applications
The web conferencing systems (e.g., Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Webex) saw The web conferencing systems (e.g., Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Webex) saw
incredible growth, with overnight traffic increases of 15-20% in incredible growth, with overnight traffic increases of 15-20% in
response to public policy changes, such as lockdowns. This required response to public policy changes, such as lockdowns. This required
significant and rapid changes in infrastructure provisioning. significant and rapid changes in infrastructure provisioning.
Major video providers (YouTube, etc.) reduced bandwidth by 25% in Major video providers (YouTube, etc.) reduced bandwidth by 25% in
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a whole is a real concern when it comes to debugging performance a whole is a real concern when it comes to debugging performance
issues. issues.
Further, it's clear that it can be difficult to route problem reports Further, it's clear that it can be difficult to route problem reports
to the person who can fix them, across multiple networks in the to the person who can fix them, across multiple networks in the
Internet. COVID-enhanced cooperation made it easier to debug Internet. COVID-enhanced cooperation made it easier to debug
problems; lines of communication are important. problems; lines of communication are important.
3.2.4. Security 3.2.4. Security
It was noted that there is a shift to home working generally, and in The increased threats and network security impacts arising from
the way people use the network, with IT departments rolling out new COVID-19 fall into two areas: (1) the agility of malicious actors to
equipment quickly and using technologies like VPNs for the first spin up new campaigns using COVID-19 as a lure, and (2) the increased
time. threat surface from a rapid shift towards home working.
There are reports of a strong rise in phishing, fraud, and scams During 2020, there was a shift to home working generally, and in the
related to COVID [Kirsty2020]. It's unclear if there was an increase way in which people use the network, with IT departments rolling out
in fraud overall but there was certainly a shift in activity. New new equipment quickly and using technologies like VPNs for the first
types of attacks, for example on vaccine research labs, health time, while others put existing solutions under much greater load.
services, and home working were reported. As VPN technology became more widespread and more used, it arguably
became a more valuable target; one Advanced (APT29) was successful in
using recently published exploits in a range of VPN software to gain
initial footholds[Kirsty2020].
Of all scams detected by the UK NCSC (United Kingdom National Cyber
Security Centre) that purported to originate from UK Government, more
related to COVID-19 than any other subject. There are other reports
of a strong rise in phishing, fraud, and scams related to COVID
[Kirsty2020]. Although, from the data seen to date, the overall
levels of cyber crime have not increased, there was certainly a shift
in activity - as both the NCSC and CISA (DHS Cybersecurity and
Infrastructure Security Agency) saw a growing use of COVID-19 related
themes by malicious cyber actors as a lure. Attackers used COVID-19
related scams and phishing emails to target: individuals, small and
medium businesses, large organisations, and organisations involved in
both national and international COVID-19 responses (healthcare
bodies, pharmaceutical companies, academia and medical research
organisations). New targets, for example organisations involved in
COVID-19 vaccine development were attacked using VPN exploits,
highlighting the potential consequences of vulnerable infrastructure.
It's unclear how to effectively detect and counter these attacks at It's unclear how to effectively detect and counter these attacks at
scale. Approaches such as crowd-sourced flagging of suspicious scale. Approaches such as using Indicators of Compromise and crowd-
emails help, and others noted that observing DNS to detect malicious sourced flagging of suspicious emails were found to be effective in
use is popular. The use of DNS over HTTPS offers privacy benefits the response to COVID-19-related scams[Kirsty2020], and observing DNS
but is also observed to bypasses some protective measures. to detect malicious use is widespread and effective. The use of DNS
over HTTPS offers privacy benefits but current deployment models can
bypass these existing protective DNS measures.
It was also noted that when everyone moves to performing their job It was also noted that when everyone moves to performing their job
online, lack of understanding of security becomes a bigger issue. online, lack of understanding of security becomes a bigger issue. Is
Who is ultimately responsible for security? Do we expect every user it reasonable to expect every user of the Internet to take password
of the Internet to take password training? Or is there a fundamental training? Or is there a fundamental problem with a technical
problem here with a technical solution. Technologies such as Zoom solution? Modern advice advocates a layered approach to security
are not new: many people have used them for years; nobody attacked it defences, with user education forming just one of those layers.
until it was the front line. What's the next vulnerable service?
Overall, it may be that the pandemic caused fewer security changes, Communication platforms such as Zoom are not new: many people have
with many people suddendly working from home, than one might have used them for years, but as COVID-19 saw an increasing number of
guessed prior to the pandemic. However, existing security problems organisations and individuals turning to these technologies, they
and challenges may have become even more obvious and acute with an became an attractive target, due to increased usage. In turn, there
increased use of Internet-based services. was an increase in malicious cyber actor activity, either hijacking
online meetings that were not secured with passwords or leveraging
unpatched software as an attack vector. How can new or existing
measures protect users from the attacks levied against the next
vulnerable service?
Overall, it may be that there were fewer security challenges than
expected arising from many people suddenly working from home.
However, the agility of attackers, the importance of robust and
scalable defence mechanisms, and some existing security problems and
challenges may have become even more obvious and acute with an
increased use of Internet-based services, particularly in a pandemic
situation and times of uncertainty, where users can be more
vulnerable to social engineering techniques and attacks.
3.2.5. Discussion 3.2.5. Discussion
There is a concern that we're missing observability for the network There is a concern that we're missing observability for the network
as a whole. Each application provider and operator has their own as a whole. Each application provider and operator has their own
little lens. No-one has the big-picture view of the network. little lens. No-one has the big-picture view of the network.
How much of a safety margin do we need? Some of the resiliency comes How much of a safety margin do we need? Some of the resiliency comes
from us not running the network too close to its limit. This allows from us not running the network too close to its limit. This allows
traffic to shift, and gives headroom for the network to cope. The traffic to shift, and gives headroom for the network to cope. The
best effort nature of the network may help here. Techniques to run best effort nature of the network may help here. Techniques to run
the network closer to its limits improve performance in the usual the network closer to its limits improve performance in the usual
case, but highly optimised networks may be less robust. case, but highly optimised networks may be less robust.
Finally, it was observed that we get what we measure. There may be Finally, it was observed that we get what we measure. There may be
an argument for operators to shift their measurement focus perhaps an argument for operators to shift their measurement focus perhaps
away from pure capacity, to rather measure QoE or resilience. The away from pure capacity, to rather measure QoE or resilience. The
Internet is a critical infrastructure, and people are realising that Internet is a critical infrastructure, and people are realising that
now. We should use this as a wake-up-call to improve resilience, now. We should use this as a wake-up-call to improve resilience,
both in protocol design and operational practise, not necessarily to both in protocol design and operational practice, not necessarily to
optimise for absolute performance or quality of experience. optimise for absolute performance or quality of experience.
3.3. Conclusions 3.3. Conclusions
There is a wealth of data about the performance of the Internet There is a wealth of data about the performance of the Internet
during the crisis. The main conclusion from the various measurements during the crisis. The main conclusion from the various measurements
is that fairly large shifts occurred. And those shifts were not is that fairly large shifts occurred. And those shifts were not
merely about changing one application for another, they actually merely about changing one application for another, they actually
impacted traffic flows and directions, and caused in many cases a impacted traffic flows and directions, and caused in many cases a
significant traffic increase. Early reports also seem to indicate significant traffic increase. Early reports also seem to indicate
that the shifts have gone relatively smoothly from the point of view that the shifts have gone relatively smoothly from the point of view
of overall consumer experience. of overall consumer experience.
An important but not so visible factor that led to this was that many An important but not so visible factor that led to this was that many
people and organizations where highly motivated to ensure good people and organizations where highly motivated to ensure good
experience. A lot of collaboration happened in the background, experience. A lot of collaboration happened in the background,
problems were corrected, many providers significantly increased their problems were corrected, many providers significantly increased their
capacity, and so on. capacity, and so on.
On the security front, the COVID-19 crisis showcased the agility with
which malicious actors can move in response to a shift in user
Internet usage, and the vast potential of the disruption and damage
that they can inflict. Equally, it showed the agility of defenders,
when they have access to the tools and information they need to
protect users and networks, and showcased the power of Indicators of
Compromise when defenders around the world are working together
against the same problem.
In general, the Internet also seems well suited for adapting to new In general, the Internet also seems well suited for adapting to new
situations, at least within some bounds. The Internet is designed situations, at least within some bounds. The Internet is designed
for any application and situation, rather than optimized for today's for flexibility and extensibility, rather than optimized for today's
particular traffic. This makes it possible to use it for many particular traffic. This makes it possible to use it for many
applications, in many deployment situations, and make changes as applications, in many deployment situations, and make changes as
needed. The generality is present in many parts of the overall needed. The generality is present in many parts of the overall
system, from basic Internet technology to browsers, from name servers system, from basic Internet technology to browsers, from name servers
to content delivery networks and cloud platforms. When needs change, to content delivery networks and cloud platforms. When usage
what is needed is often merely different services, perhaps some re- changes, what is needed is often merely different services, perhaps
allocation of resources, but not fundamental technology or hardware some re-allocation of resources, as well as consequent application
changes. and continuation of existing security defences, but not fundamental
technology or hardware changes.
On the other hand, this is not to say that no improvements are On the other hand, this is not to say that no improvements are
needed: needed:
* Better understanding of the health of the Internet: Going forward, * Improve observability to better understand the health of the
the critical nature that the Internet plays in our lives means Internet: Going forward, the critical nature that the Internet
that the health of the Internet needs to receive significant plays in our lives means that the health of the Internet needs to
attention. Understanding how well networks work is not just a receive significant attention. Understanding how well networks
technical matter, it is also of crucial importance to the people work is not just a technical matter, it is also of crucial
and economy of the societies using it. Projects and research that importance to the people and economy of the societies using it.
monitor Internet and services performance in a broad scale and Projects and research that monitor Internet and services
across different networks are therefore important. performance in a broad scale and across different networks are
therefore important.
* Maintaining defensive mechanisms to be used in times of crisis:
Malicious cyber actors are continually adjusting their tactics to
take advantage of new situations, and the COVID-19 pandemic is no
exception. Malicious actors used the high appetite for COVID-19
related information as an opportunity to deliver malware and
ransomware, and to steal user credentials. Against the landscape
of a shift to working from home and an increase in users
vulnerable to attack, and as IT departments were often overwhelmed
by rolling out new infrastructure and devices, IoC sharing was a
vital part of the response to COVID-19 related scams and attacks.
* The pandemic has shown how the effects of the digital divide can * The pandemic has shown how the effects of the digital divide can
be amplified during a crisis. More attention is needed to ensure be amplified during a crisis. More attention is needed to ensure
that broadband is available to all, and that Internet services that broadband is available to all, and that Internet services
equally serve different groups. equally serve different groups.
* We need to continue to work on all the other improvements that are * We need to continue to work on all the other improvements that are
seen as necessary anyway, such as further improvements in seen as necessary anyway, such as further improvements in
security, ability for networks and applications to collaborate security, ability for networks and applications to collaborate
better, etc. better, etc.
skipping to change at page 20, line 18 skipping to change at page 21, line 24
members of the IAB, the program committee, the participants in the members of the IAB, the program committee, the participants in the
architecture discussion list for interesting discussions, and Cindy architecture discussion list for interesting discussions, and Cindy
Morgan for the practical arrangements. Morgan for the practical arrangements.
Further special thanks to those participants who also contributed to Further special thanks to those participants who also contributed to
this report: Romain Fontugne provided text based on his blog post at this report: Romain Fontugne provided text based on his blog post at
https://eng-blog.iij.ad.jp/archives/7722; Ricky Mok for text on cloud https://eng-blog.iij.ad.jp/archives/7722; Ricky Mok for text on cloud
platform; Martino Trevisan for text on campus networks; David Clark platform; Martino Trevisan for text on campus networks; David Clark
on congestion measurements at interconnects; Oliver Hohlfeld for the on congestion measurements at interconnects; Oliver Hohlfeld for the
text on traffic growth, changes in traffic shifts, campus networks, text on traffic growth, changes in traffic shifts, campus networks,
and interconnections; Andra Lutu on mobile networks; And thanks to and interconnections; Andra Lutu on mobile networks; Kirsty Paine for
Jason Livingood for his review and additions. text on security impacts; and thanks to Jason Livingood for his
review and additions.
9. Informative References 9. Informative References
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