draft-iab-covid19-workshop-00.txt   draft-iab-covid19-workshop-01.txt 
Network Working Group J. Arkko Network Working Group J. Arkko
Internet-Draft Ericsson Internet-Draft Ericsson
Intended status: Best Current Practice S. Farrell Intended status: Informational S. Farrell
Expires: 5 August 2021 Trinity College Dublin Expires: 26 August 2021 Trinity College Dublin
M. Kühlewind M. Kühlewind
Ericsson Ericsson
C. Perkins C. Perkins
University of Glasgow University of Glasgow
1 February 2021 22 February 2021
Report from the IAB COVID-19 Network Impacts Workshop 2020 Report from the IAB COVID-19 Network Impacts Workshop 2020
draft-iab-covid19-workshop-00 draft-iab-covid19-workshop-01
Abstract Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic caused changes in Internet traffic, The COVID-19 pandemic caused changes in Internet user behavior,
particularly during the introduction of the initial quarantine and particularly during the introduction of the initial quarantine and
work-from-home arrangements. work-from-home arrangements. These behavior changes drove changes in
Internet traffic.
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss
Network Impacts of the pandemic, on November 9-13, 2020. The network impacts of the pandemic on November 9-13, 2020. The workshop
workshop was held to convene interested researchers, network was held to convene interested researchers, network operators,
operators, and network management experts, and Internet technologists network management experts, and Internet technologists to share their
to share their experiences. The meeting was held online given the experiences. The meeting was held online given the on-going travel
on-going travel and contact restrictions at that time. and contact restrictions at that time.
Discussion Venues Discussion Venues
This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC. This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.
Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
https://github.com/intarchboard/covid19-workshop. https://github.com/intarchboard/covid19-workshop.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 August 2021.
This Internet-Draft will expire on 26 August 2021.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/ Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Workshop Topics and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Workshop Topics and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic 3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic
Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. Changes in Application Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.2. Changes in Application Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.5. Cloud Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.5. Cloud Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.6. Last Mile Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.6. Last-Mile Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.7. User Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.7. User Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations . 11 3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations . 11
3.2.1. Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.1. Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.3. Observability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.3. Observability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.4. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.4. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2.5. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.5. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Feedback on Meeting Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Feedback on Meeting Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. Position Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5. Position Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. Workshop participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Workshop participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop to discuss
Network Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, on November 9-13, 2020. network impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, on November 9-13, 2020.
The workshop was held to convene interested researchers, network The workshop was held to convene interested researchers, network
operators, and network management experts, and Internet technologists operators, network management experts, and Internet technologists to
to share their experiences. The meeting was held online given the share their experiences. The meeting was held online given the on-
on-going travel and contact restrictions at that time. going travel and contact restrictions at that time.
COVID-19 has caused changes in Internet traffic. These changes COVID-19 has caused changes in user behavior, which in turn drove
appeared rather abruptly and were significant, in particular during change to Internet traffic. These changes appeared rather abruptly
the introduction of the initial quarantine and work-from-home and were significant, in particular during the introduction of the
arrangements. The changes relate to traffic volumes, location of initial quarantine and work-from-home arrangements. The changes
traffic, as well as the types of traffic and applications used. relate to traffic volumes, location of traffic, as well as the types
of traffic and applications used.
Announcement for the workshop was sent out in July 2020, requesting Announcement for the workshop was sent out in July 2020, requesting
interested parties to submit position papers for the workshop program interested parties to submit position papers for the workshop program
committee. A total of 15 position papers were received from committee. A total of 15 position papers were received from
altogether 33 authors. The papers are listed in Section 5. In altogether 33 authors. The papers are listed in Section 5. In
addition, several other types of contributions and pointers to addition, several other types of contributions and pointers to
existing work were provided. A number of position papers referred to existing work were provided. A number of position papers referred to
parallel work being published in measurement-related academic parallel work being published in measurement-related academic
conferences. conferences.
Invitations for the workshop were sent out based on the position Invitations for the workshop were sent out based on the position
papers and other expressions of interest. On the workshop conference papers and other expressions of interest. On the workshop conference
calls were 45 participants, listed in Section 6. calls were 45 participants, listed in Section 6.
The workshop was held over one week hosting three sessions covering The workshop was held over one week hosting three sessions covering
i) measurements and observations, ii) operational issue, and iii) i) measurements and observations, ii) operational issue, and iii)
final future consideration and conclusions. As these three sessions future consideration and conclusions. As these three sessions were
were scheduled Monday, Wednesday, and Friday a positive side effect scheduled Monday, Wednesday, and Friday a positive side effect was
was that the time in between could be used for mailing list that the time in between could be used for mailing list discussion
discussion and compilation of additional workshop material. and compilation of additional workshop material.
2. Scope 2. Scope
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact on people's lives The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact on people's lives
and the societies and economies around the globe. But it also had and the societies and economies around the globe. But it also had a
big impact on networking. With large numbers of people working from big impact on networking. With large numbers of people working from
home or otherwise depending on the network for their daily lives, home or otherwise depending on the network for their daily lives,
network traffic volume has surged. Internet service providers and network traffic volume has surged. Internet service providers and
operators have reported a 20% traffic growth or more in a matter of operators have reported a 20% traffic growth or more in a matter of
weeks. Traffic in Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) is similarly on weeks. Traffic at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) is similarly on
the rise. Most forms of network traffic have seen an increase, with the rise. Most forms of network traffic have seen an increase, with
conversational multimedia traffic growing in some cases more than conversational multimedia traffic growing in some cases more than
200%. And user time spent on conferencing services has risen by an 200%. And user time spent on conferencing services has risen by an
order of magnitude on some conferencing platforms. order of magnitude on some conferencing platforms.
In general, the Internet has coped relatively well with this traffic In general, the Internet has coped relatively well with this traffic
growth, albeit not without some issues. For instance, some outages, growth, albeit not without some issues. For instance, some outages,
video quality reduction, and other issues were reported. video quality reduction, and other issues were reported.
Nevertheless, it is interesting to see how the technology, operators Nevertheless, it is interesting to see how the technology, operators
and service providers have been able to respond to large and sudden and service providers have been able to respond to large and sudden
changes in traffic patterns. changes in traffic patterns.
Understanding what actually happened with Internet traffic is of Understanding what actually happened with Internet traffic is of
course interesting by its own right. How that impacted user course interesting by its own right. How that impacted user
experience, or the intended function of the services is equally experience or the intended function of the services is equally
interesting. Measurements and reports of the traffic situation from interesting. Measurements and reports of the traffic situation from
2020 are therefore valuable. But it would also be interesting to 2020 are therefore valuable. But it would also be interesting to
understand what types of network management and capacity expansion understand what types of network management and capacity expansion
actions were taken in general. Anecdotal evidence points to Internet actions were taken in general. Anecdotal evidence points to Internet
and service providers tracking how their services are used, and in and service providers tracking how their services are used, and in
many cases adjusting services to accommodate the new traffic many cases adjusting services to accommodate the new traffic
patterns, from dynamic allocation of compute resources to more patterns, from dynamic allocation of compute resources to more
complex changes. complex changes.
The impacts of this crisis are also a potential opportunity to The impacts of this crisis are also a potential opportunity to
understand the impact of traffic shifts and growth more generally, or understand the impact of traffic shifts and growth more generally, or
to prepare for future situations -- crisis or otherwise - that impact to prepare for future situations -- crises or otherwise - that impact
networking. Or even allow us to adjust the technology to be even networking. Or even allow us to adjust the technology to be even
better suited to respond to changes. better suited to respond to changes.
The scope of this workshop included: The scope of this workshop included:
* measurements about traffic changes, user experience, service * measurements about traffic changes, user experience, service
performance, and other relevant aspects performance, and other relevant aspects
* discussion about the behind the scenes network management and * discussion about the behind the scenes network management and
expansion activities expansion activities
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3. Workshop Topics and Discussion 3. Workshop Topics and Discussion
3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic Dynamics 3.1. Measurement-based Observations on Network Traffic Dynamics
The workshop started with a focus on measurements. A large portion The workshop started with a focus on measurements. A large portion
of the submitted papers presented and discussed measurement data and of the submitted papers presented and discussed measurement data and
these submissions provided a good basis get a better understanding of these submissions provided a good basis get a better understanding of
the situation, covering different angles and aspects of network the situation, covering different angles and aspects of network
traffic and kind of networks. traffic and kind of networks.
Changes in Internet traffic due to the COVID-19 pandemic are Changes in Internet traffic due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected
affecting different networks in various ways. Yet all networks different networks in various ways. Yet all networks observed some
observe some form of change, be it in a reduction in traffic, an form of change, be it a reduction in traffic, an increase in traffic,
increase in traffic, a change in working days and weekend days a change in working days and weekend days patterns, or a change in
patterns, or a change in traffic classes. Traffic volume, traffic classes. Traffic volume, directionality ratios, and its
directionality ratios, and its source and destination are radically source and destination are radically different than from before
different from before COVID-19. COVID-19.
At a high level, while traffic from home networks increased At a high level, while traffic from home networks increased
signficiantly, the traffic in mobile networks decreased as a result significantly, the traffic in mobile networks decreased as a result
of reduced population mobility. Further, there was a strong increase of reduced population mobility. The observed behavior in mobile
in video conferencing and remote learning application traffic due to networks is antagonistic, yet complementary, to the one observed in
the shift for working and learning at home. With that swift, the residential ISPs. In residential networks there was a strong
typical diurnal usage patterns in network traffic also changed, with increase in video conferencing and remote learning application
peak times occuring earlier in the day and peak times lasting longer traffic due to the shift for working and learning at home. With that
over the day - reflecting the start of the work or school day from shift, the typical diurnal usage patterns in network traffic also
home. This behavior is antagonistic, yet complementary, to the one changed, with peak times occuring earlier in the day and lasting
observed in residential ISPs. longer over the day - reflecting the start of the work or school day
from home. This behavior is antagonistic, yet complementary, to the
one observed in residential ISPs.
While diurnal congestion at interconnect point sas well in certain While diurnal congestion at interconnect point as well in certain
last mile network was reported, mainly in March, but no persitent last mile network was reported, mainly in March, no persitent
congestion was observed. Further a downward trends in download congestion was observed. Further, a downward trends in download
throughput to certain cloud regions was measured which can probably throughput to certain cloud regions was measured, which can probably
explained with the increase use of clould services, giving another explained with the increase use of cloud services. This gives
indication that the scalng of shared resources in the Internet in another indication that the scalng of shared resources in the
working resonably well to even handle larger changes in traffic as Internet is working reasonably well enough to handle even larger
experience during the first nearly global lockdown of the COVID-19 changes in traffic as experience during the first nearly global
pandemic. lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic.
3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth 3.1.1. Overall Traffic Growth
The global pandemic has significantly accelerated the growth of data The global pandemic has significantly accelerated the growth of data
traffic worldwide. Based on the measurement data of one ISP, three traffic worldwide. Based on the measurement data of one ISP, three
IXPs, a metropolitan educational network, and a mobile operator it IXPs, a metropolitan educational network, and a mobile operator, it
was observed at the beginning of the workshop [Feldmann2020] that was observed at the beginning of the workshop [Feldmann2020] that
overall the network was able to handle the situation well despite a overall the network was able to handle the situation well, despite a
significant and sudden increase in traffic growth rate in March/ significant and sudden increase in traffic growth rate in March and
April. That is, after the lockdown is implemented in March a traffic April. That is, after the lockdown was implemented in March, a
increase of 15-20% at the ISP as well as the three IXPs was observed. traffic increase of 15-20% at the ISP as well as the three IXPs was
That represents the traffic growth expected in a typical year which observed. That represents the traffic growth expected in a typical
now took place in the matter of a few weeks only---a substantial year which now took place in the matter of a few weeks only---a
increase. At DE-CIX Frankfurt, the world's largest Internet Exchange substantial increase. At DE-CIX Frankfurt, the world's largest
in terms of data throughput, the year 2020 has seen the largest Internet Exchange Point in terms of data throughput, the year 2020
increase in peak traffic within a single year since the IXP was has seen the largest increase in peak traffic within a single year
founded in 1995. Additionally, mobile traffic is slightly receding. since the IXP was founded in 1995. Additionally, mobile traffic has
In access networks, the growth rate of upstream traffic also exceeded slightly receded. In access networks, the growth rate of upstream
the growth in downstream traffic, reflecting increased adoption and traffic also exceeded the growth in downstream traffic, reflecting
use of video conferencing and other remote work and school increased adoption and use of video conferencing and other remote
applications. work and school applications.
Most traffic increases happen during non-traditional peak hours: Most traffic increases happened during non-traditional peak hours:
Before the first COVID-19 lockdowns, the main time of use was in the Before the first COVID-19 lockdowns, the main time of use was in the
evening hours during the week, whereas since March it has been spread evening hours during the week, whereas since March it has been spread
equally across the day. That is, the increase in usage is mainly more equally across the day. That is, the increase in usage has
occurring outside the previous peak usage times (e.g. during the day mainly occurred outside the previous peak usage times (e.g. during
while working from home). This means that, for the first time, the day while working from home). This means that, for the first
network utilization on weekdays resembles that on weekends. The time, network utilization on weekdays resembled that on weekends.
effects of the increased traffic volume can easily be absorbed: The effects of the increased traffic volume could easily be absorbed:
either by using existing reserve capacity, or by quickly switching either by using existing reserve capacity, or by quickly switching
additional bandwidth. This is one reason why the Internet was able additional bandwidth. This is one reason why the Internet was able
to cope well with the pandemic during the first lockdown period. to cope well with the pandemic during the first lockdown period.
Some of the lockdowns were lifted or relaxed around May 2020. As Some of the lockdowns were lifted or relaxed around May 2020. As
people were allowed to perform some of their daily habits outside of people were allowed to perform some of their daily habits outside of
their home again, as expected, there was a decrease of the traffic at their home again, as expected, there was a decrease of the traffic
the IXPs and the ISP observed; instead mobile traffic is now growing observed at the IXPs and the ISP; instead mobile traffic began to
again. grow again.
3.1.2. Changes in Application Use 3.1.2. Changes in Application Use
The composition of data traffic has changed since the beginning of The composition of data traffic has changed since the beginning of
the pandemic: the use of videoconferencing services and virtual the pandemic: the use of videoconferencing services and virtual
private networks (VPNs) for access to company resources from the home private networks (VPNs) for access to company resources from the home
environment has risen sharply. In ISP and IXP network it was environment has risen sharply. In ISP and IXP network it was
overserved [Feldmann2020] that traffic associated to web observed [Feldmann2020] that traffic associated with web
conferencing, video, and gaming increased largely in March 2020 as a conferencing, video, and gaming increased largely in March 2020 as a
result of the increasing user deman for solutions like Zoom or result of the increasing user demand for solutions like Zoom or
Microsoft Teams could be observed. For example, the relative traffic Microsoft Teams. For example, the relative traffic share of many
share of many "essential" applications like VPN and conferencing "essential" applications like VPN and conferencing tools increased by
tools increased by more than 200%. Also, as people spend more hours more than 200%.
at home, they tend to watch videos or play games, thus increasing
entertainment traffic demands. At the same time, the traffic share Also, as people spent more hours at home, they tended to watch videos
for other traffic classes decreases substantially, e.g., traffic or play games, thus increasing entertainment traffic demands. At the
related to education, social media, and---for some periods---CDNs. same time, the traffic share for other traffic classes decreased
In April and June, web conferencing traffic is still high compared to substantially, e.g., traffic related to education, social media, and
the pre-pandemic scenario, while a slight decrease in CDN and social ---for some periods---CDNs. In April and June, web conferencing
media traffic is observed. During these months many people are still traffic was still high compared to the pre-pandemic scenario, while a
working from home, but restrictions have been lifted or relaxed, slight decrease in CDN and social media traffic was observed. During
which likely leads to an increase in in-person social activities and these months many people were still working from home, but
a decrease in online ones. restrictions had been lifted or relaxed, which likely led to an
increase in in-person social activities and a decrease in online
ones.
3.1.2.1. Example Campus Networks 3.1.2.1. Example Campus Networks
Changes in traffic have been observed at University campus networks Changes in traffic have been observed at University campus networks
as well, especially due to the necessary adoption of remote teaching. as well, especially due to the necessary adoption of remote teaching.
The Politecnico di Torino University (Italy) deployed its in-house The Politecnico di Torino University (Italy) deployed its in-house
solution for remote teaching, which caused the outgoing traffic to solution for remote teaching, which caused the outgoing traffic to
grow by 2.5 times, driven by more than 600 daily online classes. grow by 2.5 times, driven by more than 600 daily online classes.
Incoming traffic, instead, decreased by a factor of 10 due to the Incoming traffic, instead, decreased by a factor of 10 due to the
cessation of any in-presence activity. Based on their measurements, cessation of any in-person activity. Based on their measurements,
this change in traffic and network usage did however not lead to this change in traffic and network usage did however not lead to
noticeable performance impairments, nor significantly poor noticeable performance impairments, nor have significantly poor
performance have been observed for students in remote regions of performance been observed for students in remote regions of Italy.
Italy. Further, outgoing traffic increased as well due to remote Outgoing traffic also increased due to other remote working
working solutions such as collaboration platforms, VPNs and remote solutions, such as collaboration platforms, VPNs, and remote
desktop. desktops.
Similar changes were observed by measuring REDIMadrid [Feldmann2020], Similar changes were observed by measuring REDIMadrid [Feldmann2020],
a European educational and research network, which connects 16 a European educational and research network, which connects 16
independent universities and research centers in the metropolitan independent universities and research centers in the metropolitan
region of Madrid. A drop of up to 55% in traffic volume on working region of Madrid. A drop of up to 55% in traffic volume on working
days during the pandemic was observed. Similar to findings for ISP/ days during the pandemic was observed. Similar to findings for ISP/
IXP networks, it was observed that working days and weekend days are IXP networks, it was observed that working days and weekend days are
becoming more similar in terms of total traffic. The hourly traffic becoming more similar in terms of total traffic. The hourly traffic
patterns reveal a traffic increase between 9 pm and 7 am. This could patterns reveal a traffic increase between 9 pm and 7 am. This could
be due to users working more frequently at unusual times, but also be due to users working more frequently at unusual times, but also
potentially caused by overseas students (mainly from Latin America potentially caused by overseas students (mainly from Latin America
and East Asia as suggested by the AS numbers from which these and East Asia as suggested by the AS numbers from which these
connections come from) who access university network resources from connections came from) who accessed university network resources from
their home countries. their home countries.
Given the fact that the users of the academic network (e.g., students Given the fact that the users of the academic network (e.g., students
and research staff) had to leave the campus as a response to lockdown and research staff) had to leave the campus as a response to lockdown
measures, also the traffic in/out (i.e., ingress/egress) ratio measures, also the traffic in and out (i.e., ingress and egress)
changed drastically. Prior to the lockdown, the incoming traffic was ratio changed drastically. Prior to the lockdown, the incoming
much larger then the outgoing traffic. This changed to a more traffic was much larger then the outgoing traffic. This changed to a
balanced setting. This change of traffic asymmetry can be explained more balanced ratio. This change of traffic asymmetry can be
by the nature of remote work. On the one end, users connect to the explained by the nature of remote work. On the one end, users
network services mainly to access resources, hence the increase in connected to the network services mainly to access resources, hence
outgoing traffic. On the other end, all external (i.e., Internet- the increase in outgoing traffic. On the other end, all external
based) resources requested during work are no longer accessed from (i.e., Internet-based) resources requested during work were no longer
the educational network but from the use accessed from the educational network but from the users' homes.
3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility 3.1.3. Mobile Networks and Mobility
Mobile network data usage appeared to decline following the Mobile network data usage appeared to decline following the
imposition of localized lockdown measures, as these reduced typical imposition of localized lockdown measures, as these reduced typical
levels of mobility and roaming. levels of mobility and roaming.
[Lutu2020] measured the cellular network of O2 UK to evaluate how the [Lutu2020] measured the cellular network of O2 UK to evaluate how the
changes in people's mobility impacted traffic patterns. By analyzing changes in people's mobility impacted traffic patterns. By analyzing
cellular network signalling information regarding users' device cellular network signalling information regarding users' device
mobility activity, they observed a decrease of 50% in mobility mobility activity, they observed a decrease of 50% in mobility
(according to different mobility metrics) in the UK during the (according to different mobility metrics) in the UK during the
lockdown period. As they founnd no correlation between this lockdown period. As they found no correlation between this reduction
reduction in mobility and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, in mobility and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, only the
only the enforced government order was effective in significantly enforced government order was effective in significantly reducing
reducing mobility and this reduction was more significant in densely mobility and this reduction was more significant in densely populated
populated urban areas than in rural areas. For London, specifically, urban areas than in rural areas. For London, specifically, it could
it could be observed from the mobile network data that approximately be observed from the mobile network data that approximately 10% of
10% of the residents temporarily relocated during the lockdown. the residents temporarily relocated during the lockdown.
These mobility changes have immediate implications in traffic These mobility changes had immediate implications in traffic patterns
patterns of the cellular network. The downlink data traffic volume of the cellular network. The downlink data traffic volume aggregated
aggregated for all bearers (including conversational voice) decreased for all bearers (including conversational voice) decreased for all UK
for all UK by up to 25% during the lockdown period. This correlates by up to 25% during the lockdown period. This correlates with the
with the reduction in mobility that was observed country-wide, which reduction in mobility that was observed country-wide, which likely
results in people likely relying more on the broadband residential resulted in people relying more on broadband residential Internet
Internet access to run download intensive applications such as video access to run download intensive applications such as video
streaming. The observed decrease in the radio cell load, with a streaming. The observed decrease in the radio cell load, with a
reduction of approximately 15% across the UK after the stay-at-home reduction of approximately 15% across the UK after the stay-at-home
order, further corroborates the drop in cellular connectivity usage. order, further corroborates the drop in cellular connectivity usage.
The total uplink data traffic volume, on the other hand, experienced The total uplink data traffic volume, on the other hand, experienced
little changes (between -7% and +1,5%) during lockdown. This is little changes (between -7% and +1,5%) during lockdown. This was
mainly due to the increase of 4G voice traffic (i.e., VoLTE) across mainly due to the increase of 4G voice traffic (i.e., VoLTE) across
the UK that peaked at 150% after lockdown compared to the national the UK that peaked at 150% after the lockdown compared to the
medial value before the pandemic, thus compensating the decrease in national medial value before the pandemic, thus compensating for the
data traffic in the uplink. decrease in data traffic in the uplink.
Finally, it was also observd that mobility changes have different Finally, it was also observed that mobility changes have a different
impact on network usage in geodemographic area clusters. In densely impact on network usage in geodemographic area clusters. In densely
populated urban areas, a significantly higher decrease of mobile populated urban areas, a significantly higher decrease of mobile
network usage (i.e., downlink and uplink traffic volumes, radio load network usage (i.e., downlink and uplink traffic volumes, radio load
and active users) was observed than in rural areas. By looking into and active users) was observed than in rural areas. In the case of
the case of London, this is likely due to geodemographics of the London, this was likely due to geodemographics of the central
central districts, which include many seasonal residents (e.g., districts, which include many seasonal residents (e.g., tourists),
tourists), business and commercial areas. business and commercial areas.
3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections 3.1.4. A Deeper Look at Interconnections
Traffic at points of network interconnection noticeably increased but Traffic at points of network interconnection noticeably increased,
most operators reacted quickly by rapidly adding additional capacity but most operators reacted quickly by rapidly adding additional
[Feldmann2020]. The amount of increases varied, with some networks capacity [Feldmann2020]. The amount of increases varied, with some
that hosted popular applications such as video conferencing networks that hosted popular applications such as video conferencing
experiencing traffic growth of several hundred to several thousand experiencing traffic growth of several hundred to several thousand
percent. At the IXP-level, it was observe that port utilization percent. At the IXP-level, it was observed that port utilization
increases. This phenomenon is mostly explained by a higher traffic increased. This phenomenon is mostly explained by a higher traffic
demand from residential users. demand from residential users.
Measurements of interconnection links at major US ISPs by CAIDA and Measurements of interconnection links at major US ISPs by CAIDA and
MIT found some evidence of diurnal congestion around the March 2020 MIT found some evidence of diurnal congestion around the March 2020
timeframe [Clark2020], but most of this congestion disappeared in a timeframe [Clark2020], but most of this congestion disappeared in a
few weeks, which suggests that operators indeed did take steps to add few weeks, which suggests that operators indeed took steps to add
capacity or otherwise mitigate the congestion. capacity or otherwise mitigate the congestion.
3.1.5. Cloud Platforms 3.1.5. Cloud Platforms
Cloud infrastructure played a key role in supporting bandwidth- Cloud infrastructure played a key role in supporting bandwidth-
intensive video conferencing and remote learning tools to practice intensive video conferencing and remote learning tools to practice
social distancing in COVID-19 pandemic. Network congestion between social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Network congestion
cloud platforms and access networks could impact on the quality of between cloud platforms and access networks could impact the quality
experience of these cloud-based applications. CAIDA leveraged web- of experience of these cloud-based applications. CAIDA leveraged
based speed test servers to perform download and upload throughput web-based speed test servers to perform download and upload
measurements from virtual machines in public cloud platforms to throughput measurements from virtual machines in public cloud
various access ISPs in the United States [Mok2020]. platforms to various access ISPs in the United States [Mok2020].
The key findings included: The key findings included:
* Persistent congestion events were not widely observed between * Persistent congestion events were not widely observed between
cloud platforms and these networks, particular for large-scale cloud platforms and these networks, particular for large-scale
ISPs, but we could observe large diurnal download throughput ISPs, but we could observe large diurnal download throughput
variations in peak hours from some locations to the cloud. variations in peak hours from some locations to the cloud.
* There is evidence of persistent congestion in the egress direction * There was evidence of persistent congestion in the egress
to regional ISPs serving suburban areas in the U.S. Their users direction to regional ISPs serving suburban areas in the U.S.
could suffer from poor video streaming or file download Their users could have suffered from poor video streaming or file
performance from the cloud. download performance from the cloud.
* The macroscopic analysis over 3 months (June-August, 2020) * The macroscopic analysis over 3 months (June-August, 2020)
revealed downward trends in download throughput from ISPs and revealed downward trends in download throughput from ISPs and
educational networks to certain cloud regions. We believed that educational networks to certain cloud regions. We believe that
increased use of the cloud in the pandemic could be one of the increased use of the cloud in the pandemic could be one of the
factors that contributed to the decreased performance. factors that contributed to the decreased performance.
3.1.6. Last Mile Congestion 3.1.6. Last-Mile Congestion
Last-mile is the centerpiece of broadband connectivity, where poor The last mile is the centerpiece of broadband connectivity, where
last-mile performance generally translates to poor quality of poor last-mile performance generally translates to poor quality of
experience. In a recent IMC'20 research paper Fontugne et al. experience. In a recent IMC'20 research paper Fontugne et al.
investigated last-mile latency using traceroute data from RIPE Atlas investigated last-mile latency using traceroute data from RIPE Atlas
probes located in 646 ASes and looked for recurrent performance probes located in 646 ASes and looked for recurrent performance
degradation [Fontugne2020-1]. They found that in normal times Atlas degradation [Fontugne2020-1]. They found that in normal times Atlas
probes in only 10% ASes experience persistent last-mile congestion probes in only 10% ASes experience persistent last-mile congestion,
but they recorded 55% more congested ASes during the COVID-19 but they recorded 55% more congested ASes during the COVID-19
outbreak. This deterioration caused by stay-at-home measures is outbreak. This deterioration caused by stay-at-home measures is
particularly marked in large eyeball networks and certain parts of particularly marked in networks with a very large number of users and
the world. They found Japan to be the most impacted country in their certain parts of the world. They found Japan to be the most impacted
study looking specifically at NTT OCN, but noting similar country in their study looking specifically at NTT OCN, but noting
observations for several Japanese networks, including IIJ (AS2497). similar observations for several Japanese networks, including IIJ
(AS2497).
From mid-2020 onwards, they however observe better performance than From mid-2020 onwards, they however observed better performance than
before the pandemic. In Japan, this is partly due to the deployments before the pandemic. In Japan, this was partly due to the
originally planned for accommodating the Tokyo Olympics, and more deployments originally planned for accommodating the Tokyo Olympics,
generally, it reflects the efforts of network operators to cope with and more generally, it reflects the efforts of network operators to
these exceptional circumstances. The pandemic has demonstrated that cope with these exceptional circumstances. The pandemic has
its adaptive design and proficient community can keep the Internet demonstrated that its adaptive design and proficient community can
operational during such unprecedented events. Also, from the keep the Internet operational during such unprecedented events.
numerous research and operational reports recently published, the Also, from the numerous research and operational reports recently
pandemic is apparently shaping a more resilient Internet, as published, the pandemic is apparently shaping a more resilient
Nietzsche wrote, "What does not kill me makes me stronger". Internet, as Nietzsche wrote, "What does not kill me makes me
stronger".
3.1.7. User Behaviour 3.1.7. User Behaviour
The type of traffic needed by the users also changed in 2020. The type of traffic needed by the users also changed in 2020.
Upstream traffic increased due the use of video conferences, remote Upstream traffic increased due the use of video conferences, remote
schooling, and similar applications. The NCTA and Comcast reported schooling, and similar applications. The NCTA and Comcast reported
that while downstream traffic grew 20%, upstream traffic grew as much that while downstream traffic grew 20%, upstream traffic grew as much
as 30% to 37% [NCTA2020] [Comcast2020]. Vodafone reported that as 30% to 37% [NCTA2020] [Comcast2020]. Vodafone reported that
upstream traffic grew 100% in some markets [Vodafone2020]. upstream traffic grew 100% in some markets [Vodafone2020].
Ericsson's Consumer Lab surveyed users for their usage and Ericsson's Consumer Lab surveyed users for their usage and
experiences during the crisis). Some of the key findings in experiences during the crisis. Some of the key findings in
[ConsumerlabReport2020] were: [ConsumerlabReport2020] were:
* 9 in 10 users increased Internet activities, and time spent * 9 in 10 users increased Internet activities, and time spent
connected increased. In addition, 1 in 5 started new online connected increased. In addition, 1 in 5 started new online
activities, many in the older generation felt that they were activities, many in the older generation felt that they were
helped by video calling, parents felt that their children's helped by video calling, parents felt that their children's
education was helped, and so on. education was helped, and so on.
* Network performance was in general found satisfactory. 6 in 10 * Network performance was, in general, found satisfactory. 6 in 10
were very satisfied with fixed broadband, and 3 in 4 felt that were very satisfied with fixed broadband, and 3 in 4 felt that
mobile broadband was the same or better compared to before the mobile broadband was the same or better compared to before the
crisis. Consumers valued resilience and quality of service as the crisis. Consumers valued resilience and quality of service as the
most important task for network operators. most important task for network operators.
* Smartphone application usage changed, with fastest growth in * Smartphone application usage changed, with fastest growth in apps
COVID-19, remote working, e-learning, wellness, education, remote related to COVID-19 tracking and information, remote working,
health consultation, and social shared experience applications. e-learning, wellness, education, remote health consultation, and
Biggest decreases were in travel and booking, ride hailing, social shared experience applications. Biggest decreases were in
location, and parking applications. travel and booking, ride hailing, location, and parking
applications.
Some of the behaviours are likely permanent changes Some of the behaviours are likely permanent changes
[ConsumerlabReport2020]. The adoption of video calls and other new [ConsumerlabReport2020]. The adoption of video calls and other new
services by many consumers, such as the older generation, is likely services by many consumers, such as the older generation, is likely
going to have a long-lasting effect. Surveys in various going to have a long-lasting effect. Surveys in various
organizations point to a likely long-term increase in the number of organizations point to a likely long-term increase in the number of
people interested in remote work [WorkplaceAnalytics2020] people interested in remote work [WorkplaceAnalytics2020]
[McKinsey2020]. [McKinsey2020].
3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations 3.2. Operational Practises and Architectural Considerations
The second and third day of the workshop were held based on more open The second and third day of the workshop were held based on more open
discussions focussed on operational issues and the architectural discussions focussed on operational issues and the architectural
issues arising or other conclusions that could be reached. issues arising or other conclusions that could be reached.
3.2.1. Digital Divide 3.2.1. Digital Divide
Measurements from Fastly confirmed that Internet traffic volume, in Measurements from Fastly confirmed that Internet traffic volume, in
multiple countries, rose rapidly at the same time as COVID cases multiple countries, rose rapidly at the same time as COVID cases
increased and lock down policies came into effect. Download speeds increased and lockdown policies came into effect. Download speeds
also decreased, but in a much less dramatic fashion than overall also decreased, but in a much less dramatic fashion than overall
bandwidth usage increased. School closures led to a dramatic bandwidth usage increased. School closures led to a dramatic
increase in traffic volume in many regions, and other public policy increase in traffic volume in many regions, and other public policy
announcements triggered large traffic shifts. This suggests that announcements triggered large traffic shifts. This suggests that
governments might usefully coordinate with operators to allow time governments might usefully coordinate with operators to allow time
for pre-emptive operational changes, in some cases. for pre-emptive operational changes, in some cases.
Measurements from the US showed that download rates correlate with Measurements from the US showed that download rates correlate with
income levels. However, download rates in the lowest income zip income levels. However, download rates in the lowest income zip
codes increased as the pandemic progressed, closing the divide with codes increased as the pandemic progressed, closing the divide with
higher income areas. One possible reason for this in the data is higher income areas. One possible reason for this in the data is
decisions by some ISPs, such as Comcast and Cox, that increased decisions by some ISPs, such as Comcast and Cox, that increased
speeds for users on certain plans and in certain areas. This speeds for users on lower-cost certain plans and in certain areas.
suggests that network capacity was available, and that the This suggests that network capacity was available, and that the
correlation between income and download rates was not necessarily due correlation between income and download rates was not necessarily due
to differences in the deployed infrastructure in different regions, to differences in the deployed infrastructure in different regions,
although it was noted that certainly access link technologies provide although it was noted that certainly access link technologies provide
more flexibility than others in this regard. more flexibility than others in this regard.
3.2.2. Applications 3.2.2. Applications
The web conferencing systems (e.g., Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Webex) saw The web conferencing systems (e.g., Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Webex) saw
incredible growth, with overnight traffic increases of 15-20% in incredible growth, with overnight traffic increases of 15-20% in
response to public policy changes, such as lock downs. This required response to public policy changes, such as lockdowns. This required
significant and rapid changes in infrastructure provisioning. significant and rapid changes in infrastructure provisioning.
Major video providers (YouTube, etc.) reduced bandwidth by 25% in Major video providers (YouTube, etc.) reduced bandwidth by 25% in
some regions. It was suggested that this had a huge impact on some regions. It was suggested that this had a huge impact on
quality of videoconferencing systems until networks could scale to quality of videoconferencing systems until networks could scale to
handle full bit-rate, but other operators of some other services saw handle full bit-rate, but other operators of some other services saw
limited impact. limited impact.
Updates to popular games has a significant impact on network load. Updates to popular games has a significant impact on network load.
Some discussions were reported between ISPs, CDNs, and the gaming Some discussions were reported between ISPs, CDNs, and the gaming
industry on possibly coordinating various high-bandwidth update industry on possibly coordinating various high-bandwidth update
events, similar to what was done for entertainment/video download events, similar to what was done for entertainment/video download
speeds. There was an apparently difficult interplay between bulk speeds. There was an apparently difficult interplay between bulk
download and interactive real-time applications, potentially due to download and interactive real-time applications, potentially due to
buffer-bloat and queuing delays. buffer bloat and queuing delays.
It was noted that operators have experience of rapid growth of It was noted that operators have experience of rapid growth of
Internet traffic. New applications with exponential growth are not Internet traffic. New applications with exponential growth are not
that unusual in the network, and the traffic spike due to the lock that unusual in the network, and the traffic spike due to the
down was not that unprecedented for many. Many operators have tools lockdown was not that unprecedented for many. Many operators have
and mechanisms to deal with this. Ensuring that knowledge if shared tools and mechanisms to deal with this. Ensuring that knowledge if
is a challenge. shared is a challenge.
Following these observations traffic prioritisation was discussed, Following these observations traffic prioritisation was discussed,
starting from DSCP marking, basically wondering if a minimal priority starting from DSCP marking, basically wondering if a minimal priority
marking scheme would have helped during the pandemic, e.g. by marking scheme would have helped during the pandemic, e.g. by
allowing marking of less-than-best-effort traffic. That discussion allowing marking of less-than-best-effort traffic. That discussion
quickly deolved into a more general QoS and observability discussion, quickly devolved into a more general QoS and observability
and as such also touching on the effects of increased encryption. discussion, and as such also touching on the effects of increased
The group was not, unsuprisingly, able to finally resolve the encryption. The group was not, unsurprisingly, able to resolve the
different perspectives and interests involved in that, but the different perspectives and interests involved in that, but the
discussion demonstrated that progress is made (and being less discussion demonstrated that progress is made (and being less
heated). heated).
3.2.3. Observability 3.2.3. Observability
It is clear that there is a contrast in experience. Many operators It is clear that there is a contrast in experience. Many operators
reported few problems, in terms of metrics such as measured download reported few problems, in terms of metrics such as measured download
bandwidth, while video conferencing applications experienced bandwidth, while video conferencing applications experienced
significant usability problems running on those networks. The significant usability problems running on those networks. The
interaction between application providers and network providers interaction between application providers and network providers
worked very smoothly to resolve these issues, supported by strong worked very smoothly to resolve these issues, supported by strong
personal contacts and relationships. But it seems clear that the personal contacts and relationships. But it seems clear that the
metrics used by many operators to understand their network metrics used by many operators to understand their network
performance don't fully capture the impact on certain applications, performance don't fully capture the impact on certain applications,
and there is an observability gap. Do we need more tools to figure and there is an observability gap. Do we need more tools to figure
out the various impacts on user experience? out the various impacts on user experience?
These types of applications use surprising amounts of FEC. These types of applications use surprising amounts of Forward Error
Applications hide lots of loss to ensure a good user experience. Correction (FEC). Applications hide lots of loss to ensure a good
This makes it harder to observe problems. The network can be user experience. This makes it harder to observe problems. The
behaving poorly, but experience can be good enough. Resiliency network can be behaving poorly, but experience can be good enough.
measures can improve the user experience but hide severe problems. Resiliency measures can improve the user experience but hide severe
There may be a missing feedback loop between application developers problems. There may be a missing feedback loop between application
and operators. developers and operators.
It's clear that it's difficult for application providers and It's clear that it's difficult for application providers and
operators to isolate problems. Is a problem due to the local WiFi, operators to isolate problems. Is a problem due to the local WiFi,
the access network, cloud network, etc. Metrics from access points the access network, cloud network, etc.? Metrics from access points
would help, but in general lack of observability into the network as would help, but in general lack of observability into the network as
a whole is a real concern when it comes to debugging performance a whole is a real concern when it comes to debugging performance
issues. issues.
Further, it's clear that it can be difficult to route problem reports Further, it's clear that it can be difficult to route problem reports
to the person who can fix them, across multiple networks in the to the person who can fix them, across multiple networks in the
Internet. COVID enhanced cooperation, making it easier to debug Internet. COVID-enhanced cooperation made it easier to debug
problems; lines of communication are important. problems; lines of communication are important.
3.2.4. Security 3.2.4. Security
It was noted that there is a shift to home working generally, and in It was noted that there is a shift to home working generally, and in
the way people use the network, with IT departments rolling out new the way people use the network, with IT departments rolling out new
equipment quickly and using technologies like VPNs for the first equipment quickly and using technologies like VPNs for the first
time. time.
There are reports of a strong rise in phishing, fraud, and scams There are reports of a strong rise in phishing, fraud, and scams
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scale. Approaches such as crowd-sourced flagging of suspicious scale. Approaches such as crowd-sourced flagging of suspicious
emails help, and others noted that observing DNS to detect malicious emails help, and others noted that observing DNS to detect malicious
use is popular. The use of DNS over HTTPS offers privacy benefits use is popular. The use of DNS over HTTPS offers privacy benefits
but is also observed to bypasses some protective measures. but is also observed to bypasses some protective measures.
It was also noted that when everyone moves to performing their job It was also noted that when everyone moves to performing their job
online, lack of understanding of security becomes a bigger issue. online, lack of understanding of security becomes a bigger issue.
Who is ultimately responsible for security? Do we expect every user Who is ultimately responsible for security? Do we expect every user
of the Internet to take password training? Or is there a fundamental of the Internet to take password training? Or is there a fundamental
problem here with a technical solution. Technologies such as Zoom problem here with a technical solution. Technologies such as Zoom
are not new: many people have used then for years; nobody attacked it are not new: many people have used them for years; nobody attacked it
until it was the front line. What's the next vulnerable service? until it was the front line. What's the next vulnerable service?
Overall, it may be that the pandemic caused fewer security changes, Overall, it may be that the pandemic caused fewer security changes,
with many people suddendly work from home, than one would have with many people suddendly working from home, than one might have
guessed pre-pandemic. However, existing security problems and guessed prior to the pandemic. However, existing security problems
challenges may have become even more obvious and acute with an and challenges may have become even more obvious and acute with an
increased use of Internet-based services. increased use of Internet-based services.
3.2.5. Discussion 3.2.5. Discussion
There is a concern that we're missing observability for the network There is a concern that we're missing observability for the network
as a whole. Each application provider and operator has its our own as a whole. Each application provider and operator has their own
little lens. No-one has the big-picture view of the network. little lens. No-one has the big-picture view of the network.
How much of a safety margin do we need? Some of the resiliency comes How much of a safety margin do we need? Some of the resiliency comes
from us not running the network too close to its limit. This allows from us not running the network too close to its limit. This allows
traffic to shift, and gives headroom for the network to cope. The traffic to shift, and gives headroom for the network to cope. The
best effort nature of the network may help here. Techniques to run best effort nature of the network may help here. Techniques to run
the network closer to its limits improve performance in the usual the network closer to its limits improve performance in the usual
case, but highly optimised networks may be less robust. case, but highly optimised networks may be less robust.
Finally, it was observed that we get what we measure. There may be Finally, it was observed that we get what we measure. There may be
an argument for operators to shift their measurement focus perhaps an argument for operators to shift their measurement focus perhaps
away from pure capacity, to rather measure QoE or resilience. The away from pure capacity, to rather measure QoE or resilience. The
Internet is critical infrastructure, and people are realising that Internet is a critical infrastructure, and people are realising that
now. We should use this as a wake-up-call to improve resilience, now. We should use this as a wake-up-call to improve resilience,
both in protocol design and operational practise, not necessarily to both in protocol design and operational practise, not necessarily to
optimise for absolute performance or quality of experience. optimise for absolute performance or quality of experience.
3.3. Conclusions 3.3. Conclusions
There is a wealth of data about the performance of the Internet There is a wealth of data about the performance of the Internet
during the crisis. The main conclusion from the various measurements during the crisis. The main conclusion from the various measurements
is that fairly large shifts occurred. And those shifts were not is that fairly large shifts occurred. And those shifts were not
merely about changing one application for another, they actually merely about changing one application for another, they actually
impacted traffic flows and directions, and caused in many cases a impacted traffic flows and directions, and caused in many cases a
significant traffic increase. Early reports also seem to indicate significant traffic increase. Early reports also seem to indicate
that the shifts have gone relatively smooth from the point of view that the shifts have gone relatively smoothly from the point of view
overall consumer experience. of overall consumer experience.
An important but not so visible factor that led to this was that many An important but not so visible factor that led to this was that many
people and organizations where highly motivated to ensure good people and organizations where highly motivated to ensure good
experience. A lot of collaboration happened in the background, experience. A lot of collaboration happened in the background,
problems were corrected, many providers significantly increased their problems were corrected, many providers significantly increased their
capacity, and so on. capacity, and so on.
In general, the Internet also seems well suited for adapting to new In general, the Internet also seems well suited for adapting to new
situations, at least within some bounds. The Internet is designed situations, at least within some bounds. The Internet is designed
for any application and situation, rather than optimized for today's for any application and situation, rather than optimized for today's
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system, from basic Internet technology to browsers, from name servers system, from basic Internet technology to browsers, from name servers
to content delivery networks and cloud platforms. When needs change, to content delivery networks and cloud platforms. When needs change,
what is needed is often merely different services, perhaps some re- what is needed is often merely different services, perhaps some re-
allocation of resources, but not fundamental technology or hardware allocation of resources, but not fundamental technology or hardware
changes. changes.
On the other hand, this is not to say that no improvements are On the other hand, this is not to say that no improvements are
needed: needed:
* Better understanding of the health of the Internet: Going forward, * Better understanding of the health of the Internet: Going forward,
the critical nature that Internet plays in our lives means that the critical nature that the Internet plays in our lives means
the health of the Internet needs to receive significant attention. that the health of the Internet needs to receive significant
Understanding how well networks work is not just a technical attention. Understanding how well networks work is not just a
matter, it is also of crucial importance to the people and economy technical matter, it is also of crucial importance to the people
of the societies using it. Projects and research that monitor and economy of the societies using it. Projects and research that
Internet and services performance in a broad scale and across monitor Internet and services performance in a broad scale and
different networks are therefore important. across different networks are therefore important.
* The pandemic has shown how the effects of the digital divide can * The pandemic has shown how the effects of the digital divide can
be amplified during a crisis. More attention is needed to ensure be amplified during a crisis. More attention is needed to ensure
that broadband is available to all, and that Internet services that broadband is available to all, and that Internet services
equally serve different groups. equally serve different groups.
* We need to continue work on all the other improvements that are * We need to continue to work on all the other improvements that are
seen as necessary anyway, such as further improvements in seen as necessary anyway, such as further improvements in
security, ability for networks and applications to collaborate security, ability for networks and applications to collaborate
better, etc. better, etc.
* Informal collaboration between different parties needs to continue * Informal collaboration between different parties needs to continue
and be strengthened. and be strengthened.
4. Feedback on Meeting Format 4. Feedback on Meeting Format
While there are frequently virtual participants in IAB workshops, the While there are frequently virtual participants in IAB workshops, the
IAB had no experience running workshops entirely virtually. IAB had no experience running workshops entirely virtually.
Feedback on this event format was largely positive, however. It was Feedback on this event format was largely positive, however. It was
particularly useful that as the three sessions were scheduled Monday, particularly useful that as the three sessions were scheduled Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, the time in between could be used for mailing Wednesday, and Friday, the time in between could be used for mailing
list discussion and compilation of additional workshop material. The list discussion and compilation of additional workshop material. The
positive feedback was likely at least partly due to the fact that positive feedback was likely at least partly due to the fact that
many of the workshop participants knew one another from previous many of the workshop participants knew one another from previous
face-to-face events (primaily IETF meetings). face-to-face events (primarily IETF meetings).
The process for sending invitations to the workshop should be The process for sending invitations to the workshop should be
improved for next time, however, as a few invitations were initially improved for next time, however, as a few invitations were initially
lost, and in a virtual meeting it may be more reasonable to invite lost, and in a virtual meeting it may be more reasonable to invite
not just one person but co-authors of a paper, for instance. At not just one person but all co-authors of a paper, for instance. At
least for this workshop, we did not appear to suffer from too many least for this workshop, we did not appear to suffer from too many
participants, and in many cases there may be some days when a participants, and in many cases there may be some days when a
particular participant may not be able to attend a session. particular participant may not be able to attend a session.
5. Position Papers 5. Position Papers
The following position papers were received, in alphabetical order: The following position papers were received, in alphabetical order:
* Afxanasyev, A., Wang, L., Yeh, E., Zhang, B., and Zhang, L.: * Afxanasyev, A., Wang, L., Yeh, E., Zhang, B., and Zhang, L.:
Identifying the Disease from the Symptoms: Lessons for Networking Identifying the Disease from the Symptoms: Lessons for Networking
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