A two-level Markov model for packet loss in UDP/IP-based real-time video applications targeting residential users
Martin Ellis, Dimitrios P. Pezaros, Theodore Kypraios, and Colin Perkins
Computer Networks, volume 70, pages 384--399, September 2014.
The packet loss characteristics of Internet paths that include residential broadband links are not well understood, and there are no good models for their behaviour. This complicates the design of real-time video applications targeting home users, since it is difficult to choose appropriate error correction and concealment algorithms without a good model for the types of loss observed. Using measurements of residential broadband networks in the UK and Finland, we show that existing models for packet loss, such as the Gilbert model and simple hidden Markov models, do not effectively model the loss patterns seen in this environment. We present a new two-level Markov model for packet loss that can more accurately describe the characteristics of these links, and quantify the effectiveness of this model. We demonstrate that our new packet loss model allows for improved application design, by using it to model the performance of forward error correction on such links.