Stephen Strowes and Colin Perkins
Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2012 mini-conference, Orlando, FL, USA, March 2012.
Thorup-Zwick (TZ) compact routing guarantees sublinear state growth with the size of the network by routing via landmarks and incurring some path stretch. It uses a pseudo-random landmark selection designed for static graphs, and unsuitable for Internet routing. We propose a landmark selection algorithm for the Internet AS graph that uses k-shells decomposition to choose landmarks. Using snapshots of the AS graph from 1997–2010, we demonstrate that the ASes in the kmax-shell are highly-stable over time, and form a sufficient landmark set for TZ routing in the overwhelming majority of cases (in the remainder, adding the next k-shell suffices). We evaluate path stretch and forwarding table sizes, and show that these landmark sets retain low average path stretch with tiny forwarding tables, but are better suited to the dynamic nature of the AS graph than the original TZ landmark selection algorithm.