Colin Perkins, Orion Hodson and Vicky Hardman
IEEE Network Magazine, September 1998.
We survey a number of packet loss recovery techniques for streaming audio applications operating using IP multicast. We begin with a discussion of the loss and delay characteristics of an IP multicast channel, and from this show the need for packet loss recovery. Recovery techniques may be divided into two classes: sender- and receiver-based. We compare and contrast several sender-based recovery schemes: forward error correction (both media-specific and media-independent), interleaving, and retransmission. In addition, a number of error concealment schemes are discussed. We conclude with a series of recommendations for repair schemes to be used based on application requirements and network conditions.